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Eva Perón

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Kali Williams

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Eva Perón

June of 1943: Juan Peron helped overthrow the civilian government
*placed in charge of the Ministry of Labor
1945: the government threw him in jail (fearful)
*A few days later, hundreds of thousands of workers demanded his release
*Eva helped (?)
* Still celebrated by Peronistas, who refer to it as "day of loyalty."

Less than a week later, Juan and Evita were formally married.
Early Life
When she married Juan Peron, her life changed dramatically...
Eva Perón
15 years old: found work with theater companies in Buenos Aires
Parents: Juana Ibaguren and Juan Duarte (never married)
* Father lived two lives: legal wife & mistress
* Eventually, when Evita was one year old, Juan
abandoned his mistress and children and permanently
returned to his legal family
-Eva was the 5th child born to Juana and Juan
* Juana died in a car accident when Evita was only 6
*Met January 22, 1944 at the Luna Park stadium in Buenos Aires
*at a national relief effort after an earthquake

*Perón was a rising political and military power

By: The Juniors
Born: May 7, 1919 in Los Toldos, Argentina
- Grew up poor
- Dreamed of becoming an actress

1926: Father died, which led to financial struggle
1930: Moved to Junín, a city in Buenos Aires

20 years old: headed an entertainment company, Company of the Theater of the Air
Debut on the big screen: in Segundos Afuera, which led to a contract to perform on the radio
Specialized in dramatizations of historical figures
- Radio Belgrano (height of career)
- Even played Queen Elizabeth I
The problem of survival "became a struggle which took on a new aspect each day," - Erminda Duarte
"The Spiritual Leader of the Nation"
"Even as a little girl I wanted to recite. It was as though I wished to say something to others, something important which I felt in my deepest heart."
A year after their marriage, Peron ran for president...
In Eva's autobiography, La Razón de mi Vida, there are no dates or references to her childhood, and it does not list the location of her birth or her name at birth. According to Junín's civil registry, a birth certificate shows that a María Eva Duarte was born on May 7th, 1922. However, her baptismal certificate lists the date of birth as May 7, 1919 under the name Eva María Ibarguren. It is believed that in 1945 the adult Eva Perón created a forgery of her birth certificate for her marriage explaining the differences on each certificate,
"I am Eva Peron, the wife of the President, whose work is simple and agreeable ... and I am also Evita, the wife of the leader of a people who have deposited in him all their faith, hope and love"
"Having once been poor herself, Evita had a realistic understanding of what the people were going through"
Eva Perón Foundation
- Provided pensions, employed workers, gave away shoes and sewing machines.

- Supported by the government, private donations, and Catholic Church
Vice Presidential
In 1951, Evita set her sights on earning a place on the ballot as candidate for vice-president. This move angered many military leaders who despised Evita and her increasing powers within the government. The possibility of Evita becoming president in the event of Juan Perón's death was not something the military could accept. She did, however, receive great support from the working class, the unions, and the Peronist Women's Party. The intensity of the support she drew from these groups is said to have surprised even Juan Perón himself. Fraser and Navarro write that the wide support of Evita's supposed candidacy indicated to Juan that Evita had become just as important as him to members of the Peronist party.
Eventually, she declined the invitation to run for vice-president, saying that her only ambition was that—in the large chapter of history that would be written about her husband—the footnotes would mention a woman who brought the "...hopes and dreams of the people to the president", a woman who eventually turned those hopes and dreams into "glorious reality."
Declining the Nomination
Health Issues
On January 9, 1950, Evita fainted in public and underwent surgery three days later. Although it was reported that she had undergone an appendectomy, she was diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. Fainting continued through 1951 and extreme weakness. By 1951, it had become evident that her health was rapidly deteriorating. Although her diagnosis was withheld from her by Juan, she knew she was not well. Only a few months after "the Renouncement", Evita underwent a secret radical hysterectomy in an attempt to eradicate her advanced cervical cancer. In 2011, a Yale neurosurgeon studied Evita's skull x-rays and photographic evidence and said that Perón may have been given a prefrontal lobotomy in the last months of her life, "...to relieve the pain, agitation and anxiety she suffered in the final months of her illness."
On 4 June 1952, Evita rode with Juan Perón in a parade through Buenos Aires in celebration of his re-election as President of Argentina. Evita was by this point so ill that she was unable to stand without support. Underneath her oversized fur coat was a frame made of plaster and wire that allowed her to stand. She took a triple dose of pain medication before the parade, and took another two doses when she returned home.
In a ceremony a few days after Juan Perón's second inauguration, Evita was given the official title of "Spiritual Leader of the Nation."
Although Evita had undergone a hysterectomy by the American surgeon George T. Pack, the cancer had metastasized and returned rapidly. She was the first Argentine to undergo chemotherapy. Despite all available treatment, she became emaciated, weighing only 79 lb by June 1952. Evita died at the age of 33, at 8:25 p.m., on July 26th, 1952. The news was immediately broadcast throughout the country, and Argentina went into mourning. All activity in Argentina ceased; movies stopped playing; restaurants were closed and patrons were shown to the door. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its very sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died."
Since her death, Perón's life continues to fascinate people around the world. The story of a poor girl who became a prominent political power has been the subject of countless books, films and plays. Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber wrote the hit musical Evita in 1979, which was loosely based on Perón's life. Madonna later played Perón in the 1996 film version, with Antonio Banderas portraying Che Guevara.
Che Guevara
Che's "Motorcycle Diaries" began at the end of Juan Perón's presidential term in 1952.
Eva's "Rainbow Tour"
The year after Juan was elected as president of Argentina, Eva went on a highly publicized tour of Europe. It was considered on non-political goodwill tour; however, the origins of the visit began with an invitation from Francisco Franco, the fascist leader of Spain. For political reasons, it was decided that Eva should go instead of Juan. Advisors suggested she visit many European countries, so it would seem like Eva's sympathies were with all of Europe, not
just Spain.
Eva is often compared with Che Guevara, another idealistic Argentine who died young. Both fought to better the lives of the working class and the poor and both were misunderstood by the outside world.
Cuba in the 50's
In March 1952, a few months after a poll in the magazine Bohemia predicted that Batista would loose his bid for the Cuban presidency; Fulgencio Batista took over the Cuban government in a bloodless coup d'état. The U.S., already familiar with Batista from their previous collaboration in the 1930s and his presidency in 1940, recognized his government within two weeks.
United States in the 50's
A booming economy helped shape the blissful view of the 1950s. A rebuilding Europe was hungry for American goods, fueling the consumer-oriented sector of the American economy. Conveniences that had been toys for the upper classes such as fancy refrigerators, range-top ovens, convertible automobiles, and televisions became middle-class staples. Homes became affordable to many apartment dwellers for the first time. Consequently, the population of the "suburbs" exploded. On June 29, 1956, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the bill creating a “National System of Interstate and Defense Highways” that would, according to Eisenhower, eliminate unsafe roads, inefficient routes, traffic jams and all of the other things that got in the way of “speedy, safe transcontinental travel.”
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