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Cellular Respiration

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by

Elisa Reyes Salgado

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration

Step 1: Glycolysis
Breaks Glucose (6 Carbon) into smaller compounds (3 Carbon):
c-c-c-c-c-c ------> c-c-c
1 Glucose makes 2 Pyruvic Acid Molecules
Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration.
Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP, process is called fermentation.
Overall
2 ATPs made in Glycolisis
2 ATPs made in Krebs Cycle
34 ATPs made in ETC
+_______________________________
38 ATPs Total
Cellular Respiration
Step 2: The Krebs Cycle
What is Cellular Respiration?
Aerobic Respiration:
Oxygen must be accepted electrons and the end of the Electron Transport System. The Stages 2 and 3 cannot proceed without oxygen.

-The respiration of a simple carbohydrate as glucose can
be divided into three main stages:

1) Stage of Glycolysis
2) Stage of Krebs Cycle
3) Stage of Electron Transport System
-Each stage involves a series of
chemical reactions catalyzed
by enzymes.

A decomposition pathway that provides the energy cells need to function.
Involves a series of reactions that releases energy as they break down sugars and other substances to carbon dioxide and water.
All reactions are catalyzed by an enzyme.
Respiration releases free energy by oxidizing sugars. Then, some of the energy is conserved in ATP.
1. Pyruvate 3 carbon molecule(C-C-C) produced by glycolysis.
2. Pyruvate 3 carbon molecule (C-C-C) moved into mitochondria.
3. Pyruvate Oxidation breaks down pyruvate 3 carbon molecule (C-C-C) to
Acetyl CoA 2 carbon molecule (C-C).
• Extra Carbon (-C) molecule merged with Oxygen to become Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and leaves system.
• Called Acetyl CoA because Coenzyme A (which is the CoA part) binds to the acetate 2 carbon molecule (C-C).
• Process reduces 1 molecule of NAD+ to NADH.


The Krebs Cycle (Continued)
4. Acetyl CoA 2 carbon molecule (C-C+ A enzyme) catalyzed by enzymes to merge with Oxaloacetic Acid 4 carbon molecule (C-C-C-C). Forms citrate/citric acid 6 carbon molecule (C-C-C-C-C-C).
• Interesting Fact: Citric Acid found in lemonade.

5. Citric Acid oxidized (broken down) to Oxaloacetic Acid (C-C-C-C) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2) leaves system.
• NAD+ reduced to NADH.
• Some ADP turns into ATP.
• Some FAD gets oxidized into FADH2.

6. Cycle repeats itself.
 Each glucose= two pyruvates (C-C-C). Therefore, products of Krebs cycle doubled.
 These are input into the Electron Transport system where they lose their Hydrogen (get oxidized). Electron Transport system needs oxygen to produce ATP. Here, most of the ATP is produced.
 ATP’s, NADH’s, and FADH2’s are input into the electron transport system.
 In animals, Proteins can be broken down into amino acids and amino acids into Acetyl CoA and fats can be broken down into glucose in the liver.

The Krebs Cycle (Continued)
Purpose: To create ATPs for the cell to function
Stage of
Stage of
Stage of
Step 3: The Electron Transport System
This stage allow animal and plan cells to produce usable energy.
NADH is oxidized as it donates protons and electrons to this stage.
Supply of NAD+.
Protons and Electrons release energy as the Electron Transport system transferes them to Oxygen, to form water.
Energy is available to form ATP.
Most of the ATP is synthesized by the Electron Trasport system.
NADH, NADPH, and FADH2 carry hydrogen in cells.
At the end of the Electron Transport System, hydrogen carry by NADH and FADH2 reduces the oxygen to form H2O.
The energy realeased is used to synthesize ATP.
Total ATPs....
Similarities and Differences between Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis
Similarities:
ATP is an essential molecule
Both rely on movement of electrons in order to operate
electron transport chains are used in production of ATP
ATP production occurs because of chemiosmosis --> (diffusion of hydrogen ions through a membrane)
Differences:
Cell Respiration: Glucose is converted into ATP Photosynthesis: ATP is converted into Glucose
The reactants are glucose and oxygen rather than water and carbon dioxide
Takes place in the mitochondria
Cell respiration: electrons extracted from glucose end up in water Photosynthesis: electrons come from water and end-up in glucose.
Chemical Equation:
Reactants:
Products:
2 Reactants
3 Products
Quick Summary:
By: Elisa Reyes, Josefina Guzman, Gaby Serrano, Melissa Romualdo and Jocelyn Covarrubias
Full transcript