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Team B Debate Misinformation Assignment
Transcript of Team B Debate Misinformation Assignment
So what is the impact of technology on the developing child? Children's developing sensory, motor, and attachment systems have biologically not evolved to accommodate this sedentary, yet frenzied and chaotic nature of today's technology. The impact of rapidly advancing technology on the developing child has seen an increase of physical, psychological and behavior disorders that the health and education systems are just beginning to detect, much less understand. Child obesity and diabetes are now national epidemics in both Canada and the U.S., causally related to technology overuse. Diagnoses of ADHD, autism, coordination disorder, developmental delays, unintelligible speech, learning difficulties, sensory processing disorder, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders are associated with technology overuse, and are increasing at an alarming rate. An urgent closer look at the critical factors for meeting developmental milestones, and the subsequent impact of technology on those factors, would assist parents, teachers and health professionals to better understand the complexities of this issue, and help create effective strategies to reduce technology use.
Technology and the Realization of Decline in Intelligence.
Ever can’t help but think you’re surrounded by idiots? A leading scientist at Stanford University thinks he has the answer, and the bad news is things aren’t likely to get any better.
Dr. Gerald Crabtree, a geneticist at Stanford, has published a study that he conducted to try and identify the progression of modern man’s intelligence. As it turns out, however, Dr. Crabtree’s research led him to believe that the collective mind of mankind has been on more or a less a downhill trajectory for quite some time.
According to his research, published in two parts starting with last year’s ‘Our fragile intellect. Part I,’ Dr. Crabtree thinks unavoidable changes in the genetic make-up coupled with modern technological advances has left humans, well, kind of stupid. He has recently published his follow-up analysis, and in it explains that of the roughly 5,000 genes he considered the basis for human intelligence, a number of mutations over the years has forced modern man to be only a portion as bright as his ancestors.
Technology and it’s effect on literacy focused on Health literacy.
Empirical data collected over the past two decades have demonstrated strong links between low literacy skills and poor health outcomes, including mortality. Recently, the Educational Testing Service released a relevant report predicting that our nation is at great risk as a result of declining adult literacy, shifting demographics, and a changing economy. It is essential to understand how these educational and socioeconomic changes will impact health care and prepare for a likely epidemic of limited health literacy. A formative public health response should include seeking out new strategies for health systems to advance our public’s health literacy, while working with the educational system to better equip younger generations with the knowledge and skills necessary to navigate health care. For several decades, researchers have noted education to be a strong determinant of health, impacting both morbidity and mortality. More recent empirical data collected over the past two decades have demonstrated that inadequate adult literacy skills are strongly associated with less health knowledge, worse self-management skills, higher hospitalization rates, poorer physical and mental health, greater mortality risk, and higher health care costs. In the few studies that have examined associations between literacy, education, and health outcomes including mortality, literacy has been the more dominant predictor of outcomes than years of education, with some suggesting literacy to play a mediating role to the education–health relationship.
This is not surprising, as literacy better reflects an individual’s acquired skills and ability to engage in routine self-care activities and navigate complex systems, like that of health care. Modern health systems increasingly make extraordinary and difficult demands on patients, including those required to access, use, and follow through with suggested diagnostic studies, therapies, and self-management plans. In this context, health literacy, defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions, is of growing importance.
Recently, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) released a relevant and important report with far-reaching implications for those concerned with America’s health literacy. The report, “America’s Perfect Storm: Three Forces Changing Our Nation’s Future”, predicts that our nation is at great risk as a result of inadequate and declining adult literacy skills, shifting demographics, and a changing job market. Declining literacy is projected for several reasons. High school graduation rates peaked at 77% in 1969 and have remained stagnant at around 70% since 1995. The United States ranks 16th out of 21 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries with respect to high school graduation rates. According to national surveys, half of the American adults between the ages of 16 and 65 (the working age population targeted by the ETS report) currently lack the literacy skills to successfully function in the twenty-first century economy. In addition, reading and math performance of U.S. school-aged children, particularly African American and Hispanic students, has not significantly improved over the last few decades, also contributing to declining literacy.
The second force at work in this ‘Perfect Storm’ relates to the profoundly shifting demographics of the U.S. population. America is increasingly characterized by a diverse population of immigrants. The U.S. Census predicts that by 2015, immigration will account for more than half of our projected population growth. New immigrants come to the United States with diverse backgrounds and educational experiences; in 2004, more than a third of new immigrants over the age of 18 had less than a high school diploma, and the vast majority of these individuals reported that they spoke little or no English. One fourth of all births in the United States are currently to women under the age of 30 and without a high school diploma. This is significant, as parental education is one of the strongest indicators of literacy skills among children.
The final force described by the report plays out in the U.S. economy. Half of the expected job growth in the next decade alone will be in knowledge-intensive work sectors or those requiring higher literacy proficiency. Thus, educational disparities in earnings potential will widen. Over the next few decades, as more well-educated individuals retire, they will be replaced by workers who, on average, have lower levels of skill and education. Tens of millions more adults will be less able to qualify for better paying jobs. They will be competing not just with each other and millions of newly arrived immigrants but also with equal or better skilled workers in lower wage economies around the world.
“We, as a species, are surprisingly intellectually fragile and perhaps reached a peak 2,000 to 6,000 years ago,” he writes. “If selection is only slightly relaxed, one would still conclude that nearly all of us are compromised compared to our ancient ancestors of 3,000 to 6,000 years ago.”
That doesn’t mean it’s all downhill, though. Dr. Crabtree says, “although our genomes are fragile, our society is robust almost entirely by virtue of education, which allow strengths to be rapidly distributed to all members.”
“We have a long time to solve it. People 300 years ago had no idea where we’d be scientifically now,” he says. “We’ll be able to deal with this problem with a range of humane and ethical solutions.”
“New developments in genetics, anthropology and neurobiology predict that a very large number of genes underlie our intellectual and emotional abilities, making these abilities genetically surprisingly fragile,” he writes in part one of his research. “Analysis of human mutation rates and the number of genes required for human intellectual and emotional fitness indicates that we are almost certainly losing these abilities,” he adds in his latest report.
From there, the doctor goes on to explain that general mutations over the last few thousand years have left mankind increasingly unable to cope with certain situations that perhaps our ancestors would be more adapted to.
“I would wager that if an average citizen from Athens of 1000 BC were to appear suddenly among us, he or she would be among the brightest and most intellectually alive of our colleagues and companions, with a good memory, a broad range of ideas, and a clear-sighted view of important issues. Furthermore, I would guess that he or she would be among the most emotionally stable of our friends and colleagues. I would also make this wager for the ancient inhabitants of Africa, Asia, India or the Americas, of perhaps 2000–6000 years ago. The basis for my wager comes from new developments in genetics, anthropology, and neurobiology that make a clear prediction that our intellectual and emotional abilities are genetically surprisingly fragile.” According to the doctor, humans were at their most intelligent when “every individual was exposed to nature’s raw selective mechanisms on a daily basis.” Under those conditions, adaption, he argued, was much more of a matter than fight or flight. Rather, says the scientists, it was a sink or swim situation for generations upon generations.
Overall, the average literacy skills of working age adults (those 16–65 years of age) in the United States are expected to significantly decline by 2030. There will be a greater proportion of men and women who possess only the most basic literacy proficiencies (43% in 1992 to 54% in 2030; scoring in levels 1 and 2). These individuals will have trouble with routine health tasks, such as using a pediatric over-the-counter drug dosage chart or completing a medical history form, and find it nearly impossible to understand a standard informed consent document. Yet, there will also be a slight increase in the proportion of individuals with the most advanced skill sets (5% in 1992 to 8% in 2030; level 5). The average literacy skills of the elderly are projected to show even greater decline and disparity. Given this looming forecast, it is essential to understand how the decline in literacy, shifting demography, and changes in the job market will impact health care so we can prepare accordingly.
2.4 Digital Literacy Debate
Shawn L. Howell Sr. #0004633673
Jonathan Jones #0004634622
Ashley Philips #0004636199
Brandon Quintana #0004633662 Christopher Miller, Mckenzie Saintilaire,
Sterling Mcferren, Fabiola Rodriguez.
Technology,(through Television, Textting, Facebook Posting, and Internet Explorer.) has contributed to an increase in literacy.
With the constant rise of technology use, our younger generation has suffered a decline in literacy. Social media has noticeably had a negative effect on grammar and spelling usage among teens. Students are relying more and more on digital communications that will “fix” their mistakes instead reading books which would improve these vital skills. A survey of 214 secondary schools in the UK has shown 70% of school heads believe Facebook and Twitter are “bad for literacy”. Children now rely on technology for the majority of their play, grossly limiting challenges to their creativity and imaginations, as well as limiting necessary challenges to their bodies to achieve optimal sensory and motor development. Sedentary bodies bombarded with chaotic sensory stimulation are resulting in delays in attaining child developmental milestones, with subsequent negative impact on basic foundation skills for achieving literacy. Hard-wired for high speed, today's young are entering school struggling with self regulation and attention skills necessary for learning, eventually becoming significant behavior management problems for teachers in the classroom.
AN EPIDEMIC OF LIMITED HEALTH LITERACY
The National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) in 2003, and the Prudential Medicare Study, all showed that individuals that are socioeconomically disadvantaged, immigrants, elderly, from rural areas, and belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups are at greater risk for limited health literacy. Given the predictions detailed in The Perfect Storm report, what now is an endemic problem of limited health literacy described in great detail in the 2004 IOM report will soon reach epidemic proportions by 2030. The gravity of the problem is further complicated by parallel health care trends. The time frame for the predicted perfect storm will be that of retirement age for the entire ‘baby boomer’ generation, which, by its very size, will place great strains on our country’s health care expenditures through Medicare. Specifically, the population over the age of 65 is expected to grow from 13% to 20% between 2005 and 2030, along with steady increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions.
The elderly have the highest prevalence of chronic diseases and greatest need for self-management skills. Our health care system will have to cope with both an aging America and younger generations that will likely place a greater burden simultaneously on Medicaid and safety net providers for the uninsured and underinsured. Health professionals will be challenged to address the barriers of limited health literacy among even greater numbers of patients.
Current directions in health policy, including cost sharing, consumer-directed health insurance, and an increasingly fragmented delivery system, require patients to have even more skills to successfully navigate health care. Published studies document the impact of low health literacy skills on various aspects of health, but relatively few have reported on intervention strategies. We must issue a call to action now to prepare a response for a formative public health crisis.
Technology changing How students learn.
There is a widespread belief among teachers that students’ constant use of digital technology is hampering their attention spans and ability to persevere in the face of challenging tasks, according to two surveys of teachers already released.
Hope Molina-Porter, an English teacher in Fullerton, Calif., worries that technology is deeply altering how students learn.
The researchers note that their findings represent the subjective views of teachers and should not be seen as definitive proof that widespread use of computers, phones and video games affects students’ capability to focus.
Even so, the researchers who performed the studies, as well as scholars who study technology’s impact on behavior and the brain, say the studies are significant because of the vantage points of teachers, who spend hours a day observing students.
The timing of the studies, from two well-regarded research organizations, appears to be coincidental.
One was conducted by the Pew Internet Project, a division of the Pew Research Center that focuses on technology-related research. The other comes from Common Sense Media, a nonprofit organization in San Francisco that advises parents on media use by children. It was conducted by Vicky Rideout, a researcher who has previously shown that media use among children and teenagers ages 8 to 18 has grown so fast that they on average spend twice as much time with screens each year as they spend in school.
Teachers who were not involved in the surveys echoed their findings in interviews, saying they felt they had to work harder to capture and hold students’ attention.
“I’m an entertainer. I have to do a song and dance to capture their attention,” said Hope Molina-Porter, 37, an English teacher at Troy High School in Fullerton, Calif., who has taught for 14 years. She teaches accelerated students, but has noted a marked decline in the depth and analysis of their written work.
She said she did not want to shrink from the challenge of engaging them, nor did other teachers interviewed, but she also worried that technology was causing a deeper shift in how students learned. She also wondered if teachers were adding to the problem by adjusting their lessons to accommodate shorter attention spans.
“Are we contributing to this?” Ms. Molina-Porter said. “What’s going to happen when they don’t have constant entertainment?”
Scholars who study the role of media in society say no long-term studies have been done that adequately show how and if student attention span has changed because of the use of digital technology. But there is mounting indirect evidence that constant use of technology can affect behavior, particularly in developing brains, because of heavy stimulation and rapid shifts in attention.
Kristen Purcell, the associate director for research at Pew, acknowledged that the findings could be viewed from another perspective: that the education system must adjust to better accommodate the way students learn, a point that some teachers brought up in focus groups themselves.
“What we’re labeling as ‘distraction,’ some see as a failure of adults to see how these kids process information,” Ms. Purcell said. “They’re not saying distraction is good but that the label of ‘distraction’ is a judgment of this generation.”
The surveys also found that many teachers said technology could be a useful educational tool. In the Pew survey, which was done in conjunction with the College Board and the National Writing Project, roughly 75 percent of 2,462 teachers surveyed said that the Internet and search engines had a “mostly positive” impact on student research skills. And they said such tools had made students more self-sufficient researchers.
But nearly 90 percent said that digital technologies were creating “an easily distracted generation with short attention spans.”
I think that there is more than ample proof for our argument, “Technology,(television, texting, facebook posting, and Internet), has contributed to increase in literacy skills, is refutable. From article to article provided we state our case, we see and have great despair that our education system and students have a great divide that must be gaped before it’s too late. We in Team B would also like to say that even though this is an epidemic, we have hope, and that the people contributing to this assignment will do what they can to educate and enlighten, the people following after you.
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Similarly, of the 685 teachers surveyed in the Common Sense project, 71 percent said they thought technology was hurting attention span “somewhat” or “a lot.” About 60 percent said it hindered students’ ability to write and communicate face to face, and almost half said it hurt critical thinking and their ability to do homework.
There was little difference in how younger and older teachers perceived the impact of technology.
“Boy, is this a clarion call for a healthy and balanced media diet,” said Jim Steyer, the chief executive of Common Sense Media. He added, “What you have to understand as a parent is that what happens in the home with media consumption can affect academic achievement.”
In interviews, teachers described what might be called a “Wikipedia problem,” in which students have grown so accustomed to getting quick answers with a few keystrokes that they are more likely to give up when an easy answer eludes them. The Pew research found that 76 percent of teachers believed students had been conditioned by the Internet to find quick answers.
“They need skills that are different than ‘Spit, spit, there’s the answer,’ ” said Lisa Baldwin, 48, a high school teacher in Great Barrington, Mass., who said students’ ability to focus and fight through academic challenges was suffering an “exponential decline.” She said she saw the decline most sharply in students whose parents allowed unfettered access to television, phones, iPads and video games.
For her part, Ms. Baldwin said she refused to lower her expectations or shift her teaching style to be more entertaining. But she does spend much more time in individual tutoring sessions, she added, coaching students on how to work through challenging assignments.
Other teachers said technology was as much a solution as a problem. Dave Mendell, 44, a fourth-grade teacher in Wallingford, Pa., said that educational video games and digital presentations were excellent ways to engage students on their terms. Teachers also said they were using more dynamic and flexible teaching styles.
“I’m tap dancing all over the place,” Mr. Mendell said. “The more I stand in front of class, the easier it is to lose them.”
He added that it was tougher to engage students, but that once they were engaged, they were just as able to solve problems and be creative as they had been in the past. He would prefer, he added, for students to use less entertainment media at home, but he did not believe it represented an insurmountable challenge for teaching them at school.
While the Pew research explored how technology has affected attention span, it also looked at how the Internet has changed student research habits. By contrast, the Common Sense survey focused largely on how teachers saw the impact of entertainment media on a range of classroom skills.
The surveys include some findings that appear contradictory. In the Common Sense report, for instance, some teachers said that even as they saw attention spans wane, students were improving in subjects like math, science and reading.
But researchers said the conflicting views could be the result of subjectivity and bias. For example, teachers may perceive themselves facing both a more difficult challenge but also believe that they are overcoming the challenge through effective teaching.
Pew said its research gave a “complex and at times contradictory” picture of teachers’ view of technology’s impact.
Dr. Dimitri Christakis, who studies the impact of technology on the brain and is the director of the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at Seattle Children’s Hospital, emphasized that teachers’ views were subjective but nevertheless could be accurate in sensing dwindling attention spans among students.
His own research shows what happens to attention and focus in mice when they undergo the equivalent of heavy digital stimulation. Students saturated by entertainment media, he said, were experiencing a “supernatural” stimulation that teachers might have to keep up with or simulate.
The heavy technology use, Dr. Christakis said, “makes reality by comparison uninteresting.”