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VIETNAM FOOD SECURITY

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Tony Ton

on 21 August 2014

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Transcript of VIETNAM FOOD SECURITY

VIETNAM OVERVIEW
Vietnam is a country located in the South East of Asia. The population of Vietnam in 2013 was 89,708,900 people. Vietnam's growth rate is 1.02% and it is estimated that the population of Vietnam in 2020 will be 97,057,000. All of these people live on and a total land area of 331,210 km2 and 34% of this land is used for agricultural purposes. Vietnam is constantly developing as a country and is still finding many programs to help raise awareness about food security.
VIETNAM FOOD
The main food staple in Vietnam is rice. Rice is grown in rural areas where the land is abundant. The Red River Delta and the Mekong River is where most of Vietnam's rice is grown. Vietnam is the fifth highest exporter of rice in the world, but the farmers don't get much in return, a family of farmers of the Mekong River only earn $529 USD per year (including input costs and excluding natural disasters and disease). Sugarcane is Vietnam's second most exported commodity, over 19 million tonnes is produced each year.
Food Security Issues
As higher demands for food in Vietnam start to increase, many people believe that in the year 2050 Vietnam's food production will decrease. ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) have predicted that climate change and further industrialisation in rural farming areas will reduce the production rate and Vietnam will have to rely on processed food. However Vietnam has fulfilled 5 out 10 Millennium Goals and has lowered its poverty rate from %58 to %14.5.
COMPONENTS OF FOOD SECURITY
INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION
There are many examples of how Vietnam is increasing its food production. Since 2004 Vietnam has increased its production rate of rice by %40, this is because of improvements in areas such as environmental, technological and economical.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Fishery Workshop
The FAO is an organization that helps improve agricultural by giving knowledge to people who are in need. The FAO are creating a fishery workshop for the people living in the rural parts Vietnam. This workshop will teach the people how to catch a larger amount of fish to feed families and how to keep it so there will always be a reliable amount of healthy fish. The fish can also produce an extra income for the poorer people.
FOOD AND NUTRITION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (FANTA)
FANTA have been running programs in Vietnam to teach children and schools about a healthy life style. FANTA have produced ways of getting all the required nutrition that is needed in a healthy body. Sanitation has increased in Vietnam because of the trainers from FANTA, sanitation plays a big role in utilization as people need to know how to prepare and cook the food in a proper, efficient and hygienic way.

VIETNAM FOOD SECURITY

AVAILABILITY
Availability is to have access to an adequate amount of safe and nutritious food no matter where or who you are. Many factors can contribute to this such as, environmental and technological. These factors contribute to availability because in order for someone to have an abundance of food there must be farms or other places where the food is produced. Weather can harm the foods' growth rate or it can help it grow while technological breakthroughs can help food survive in harsh temperatures or be pest resistant.
ACCESS
Food access refers to food having a price that everyone can afford. Access also means to have a way of reaching the food, transport like boat; train or truck is needed in order to attain the food. Having access to food will ensure that all countries will have nutritious food to share.
Utilization
Utilization is being able to use the food properly. Utilization is also the learning of new techniques on how to preserve food properly so it doesn't lose its nutrients and how to prepare the food so there is less nutrients loss. Utilization also refers to how well an individual body utilizes the nutrition and energy in the prepared food.
Stability
Stability is to have a constant supply of food that is for everyone to share. Having a sufficient resource of nutritious food over a long period of time is the meaning of stability. Though there are many factors that can damage the stability, they are natural disasters, droughts and low food production. It takes a long period time for countries to recover from disasters, this will affect there stability of food and they will have to resort to other means of accessing food.
Technological Practices
Vietnam has introduced many new technological things that help the increase in food production. One of the many things that are contributing to the increase is bio pesticides. Bio pesticides are pesticides that are natural. This technological breakthrough provides a sustainable agriculture by keeping unwanted organisms away from the plant. This also doesn't affect the plants nutritional quality.

Another example of how technology has increased production is the establishment of GM Rice. Genetically modified rice is now being grown in Vietnam; this type of rice can survive through harsh climate and is also going to produce rice more regularly. The gm rice can be pest resistant, herbicide resistant, grow larger grains and can produce human protein. Though many people despise of GMO saying there are unknown health consequences. But GM rice s more efficiently grown and can keep Vietnam as a major rice exporter.

Economical Measures
The government of Vietnam have taken in to account that food security is an important thing to obtain. Therefore they have setup many new laws that enable them to produce and export more of the commodities. The government has funded more money into agricultural purposes and have made use of more land that is used to make rice. Farmers are now encouraged to farm other food staples such as sugarcane and sweet potatoes.
Environmental Practices
The landscape of hills in Mekong Region can produce different types of rice. Not long ago people in rural parts of Vietnam only farmed rice in areas that are low to the ground and usually soil that can survive underwater and keep it from being absorbed or drained out. But recent studies have proved that rice can be grown in high altitudes where water is not abundant, this increases the amount of rice Vietnam is exporting and producing.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
This graph shows the increase in fish that is produced over a period of time. there is a sharp climb in the number of fish produced during the years 2004-2010. this is because of the program FAO is running.
Recycling of Rice Straw
Many rice farmer reuse the rice straw after harvest season. There are many things they can do with the straw but they mainly turn it into bio-fertilizers. This connects with availability and utilization because the straw can be reused to make natural fertilizers which in return are available for all farmers to use. So as long as rice is being produced, bio-fertilizers will be available.
This graph displays the how much rice Vietnam exports from years 2010-14. FOB refers to how much money it costs to ship rice per ton
This map shows places in the world where food insufficiently available.
This map shows how many percent of he country is undernourished
Aragon, L. (2006). Fertile soils - Rice farming and rural life in Vietnam. [online] Learnnc.org. Available at: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/vietnam-farming/455 [Accessed 18 Aug. 2014].

Ccafs.cgiar.org, (2012). Changing farming practices in South Asia for a food secure future | CCAFS: CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. [online] Available at: http://ccafs.cgiar.org/blog/changing-farming-practices-south-asia-food-secure-future#.U-rMruOSySo [Accessed 20 Aug. 2014].

FAO, (2014). FAO Country Profiles:Vietnam. [online] Fao.org. Available at: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?iso3=VNM [Accessed 16 Aug. 2014].

IRRI, (2014). IRRI - Vietnam. [online] Irri.org. Available at: http://irri.org/our-work/locations/vietnam [Accessed 18 Aug. 2014].

Ives, M. (2013). In Mekong Delta, Rice Boom Has Steep Environmental Cost by Mike Ives: Yale Environment 360. [online] E360.yale.edu. Available at: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/in_mekong_delta_rice_boom_has_steep_environmental_cost/2670/ [Accessed 16 Aug. 2014].

Nguyen, T. (2013). In Vietnam, genetically modified crops set to get official green light. [online] Thanh Nien Daily. Available at: http://www.thanhniennews.com/society/in-vietnam-genetically-modified-crops-set-to-get-official-green-light-898.html [Accessed 19 Aug. 2014].

ORYZA, (2014). FAO Forecasts Vietnam 2014 Rice Exports at 7 Million Tons; Up 5% from Last Year. [online] Oryza. Available at: http://www.oryza.com/news/rice-news/fao-forecasts-vietnam-2014-rice-exports-7-million-tons-5-last-year [Accessed 18 Aug. 2014].

Wikipedia, (2014). Genetically modified rice. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_rice [Accessed 20 Aug. 2014].

Wulf, M. (2014). PopulationPyramid.net. [online] PopulationPyramid.net. Available at: http://populationpyramid.net/viet-nam/2020/ [Accessed 19 Aug. 2014].
By Tony Ton
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