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Ойн төлөв байдал
Transcript of Ойн төлөв байдал
Монгол орны ойн сангийн төлөв байдлыг тогтоосон түүхээс
МОНГОЛ ОРНЫ ОЙН САН
Ойн сангийн талбай
Навчит, шилмүүст ойн сангийн талбай аймгуудаар /мян.га/
Заган ойн сангийн талбай аймгаар
Ойн нөөц, өсөлт
Ойн нөөц аймгаар
Ойн сангийн талбайн өөрчлөлт
Ойгоор бүрхэгдсэн талбай 289,7 мянган га-гаар буурсан.
Ойн сангийн доройтолд орсон байдал
Ойн сангийн доройтолд орсон байдал аймгаар
Монгол орны ойн шавж
Ойн хөнөөлт шавжийн олшрол хуурайшилтын хоорондын хамаарал
Ойн хөнөөлт шавж, өвчинтэй 2013 онд тэмцэл явуулсан талбайн хэмжээ аймгаар
Ойн хөнөөлт шавж, өвчинтэй тэмцэж буй арга, хэлбэр
Ойн хөнөөлт шавж, өвчин
Монгол орны ойн амьтан, ургамал
/биологийн төрөл зүйл/
Ойжуулалт, ойг нөхөн сэргээх ажил
The hypothalamus is a neural structure that lies below the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating drinking, and body temperature. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary glands and is linked to emotion and reward.
Harry Harlow was a University of Wisconsin psychologist, and his goal was to isolate any disease and to equalize the infant monkeys' experiences. He separated the infants from their mothers and raised them in individual cages, which included a wire mother and a soft blanket mother. The monkeys preferred the soft mother.
Hypnagogic sensations, or Sleepy Hallucinations, are false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absense of an external visual stimulus. These hallucinations may be later incorporated into memories. For example, the sensation of falling is a hypnagogic sensation.
Hermann Ebbinghaus studied how he retained up to 30 days later. He found that memory fades quickly, then levels off. He called this discovery the Forgetting Curve.
Imprinting is the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. This cannot occur in humans. Konrad Lorenz demonstrated imprinting with ducklings.
Iconic memory is a type of sensory memory of visual stimuli. It lasts no more than a few tenths of a second. An example is a photograph of a picture image memory.
Implicit memory is nondeclarative, and it is retention independent of conscious recollection. It is located in the cerebellum, and deals with motor and cognitive skills, and classical conditioning. Implicit memory also deals with HOW to do something.
Insight learning is a sudden and often novel realization to solving a problem. Sometimes learning occurs after little or no systematic interaction with our environment. This happens in an "Ah ha!" moment.
John Locke was a British philosopher who argued that the mind at birth is a "blank slate" and we gain knowledge from experience. He agreed with Socrates and Plato. This idea helped form moder emiricism, the iew that knowldge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation.
John B. Watson
Sought to describe the development of moral reasoning. He posed moral dilemmas and asked children, adolescents, and adults if the action was right or wrong. He then analyzed their answers for evidence of stages of moral thinking.
The lens is transparent, and changes shape to help focus images on the retina. It is convex. The lens changes shape through the process of accommodation.
Linear perspective is a monocular cue that states that parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance. The more they converge, the greater their perceived distance. The less they converge, the closer they seem.
Lucid dreaming is the awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening. It gives you the ability to direct dream content.
LSD is a powerful hallucinogenic drug, also known as acid. It mimics serotonin, and the effects vary from euphoria to detatchement to panic. People often feel separated from body and experience dreamlike scenes so real they may become panic-stricken or harm themselves.
Long Term Potentiation
Long term potentiation is an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. It is believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Mary Calkins was the student of William James. She was the first female to become president of the American Psychological Association in 1905.
Motor Neurons are neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Myelin Sheath is a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons. It enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Monocular Depth Cues are depth cues that are available to either eye alone. Relative size, interposition, texture gradient, relative height, linear perspective, and relative brightness are all examples of monocular depth cues.
Muller Lyer is an illusion that says the bottom lines seems to come at you, which makes it seem larger. The top line seems to be going away from you, so it appears smaller. This illusion is caused by the misperception of depth.
Marijuana is a mild hallucinogen that comes from the hemp plant. The active ingredient in marijuana is THC. Like alcohol, it disinhibits, and may produce euphoric high. But it also amplifies sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells.
Norephinephrine is a stress hormone and neurotransmitter, that affects the amyglada. Norepinephrine.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleep attacks in which the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. The attacks usually last less than 5 minutes. This is caused by the absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin, a neurotransmitter linked to alertness.
Night terrors, or incubus attacks, is a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and appearance of being terrified. This occurs at Stage 4 in the sleep cycle, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep, and the dreams are seldom remembered. These target mostly children.
Nicotine is a stimulant that reaches the brain within 7 seconds. It triggers a release of epinephrine and nonepinephrine, which in turn diminish appetite and boost alertness and mental efficiency. It also stimulates the CNS to release neurotransmitters that calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain. A smoker becomes dependent and develops a tolerance.
Noam Chomsky said that we come pre-wired with a language acquisition device. Language is a universal grammar. It happens naturally, and gets refined by culture.
Negative reinforcement is reinforcement that strengthens a response by reducing/removing something unpleasant. For example, taking aspirin for a headache, or hitting the snooze button after and alarm. This is NOT the same as punishment.
The Occipital Lobe includes areas that receive information from the visual fields. It is the portion of the cortex lying at the back of the head. It includes the visual cortex.
Object Permanence is the awareness that objects continue to exist even when not perceived. This happens in the Sensorimotor Period around 8 months of age. When a baby plays peek-a-boo, they do not have object permanence because they think the other person has really disappeared.
The Optic Chiasm is the point at which the optic nerve from the inside halves of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain.
The Optic Nerve is the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Ganglion Cells form the Optic Nerve.
The Ossicles are 3 tiny bones in the middle ear that amplify the eardrum's vibrations and pass them to the cochlea. The 3 tiny bones are called the Hammer, Anvil, and the Stirrup. They make up the Piston.
Opiates are made up of Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. When repeatedly flooded with artificial opiates, the brain stops producing its own endorphins. Opiates include narcotics, like codeine, which doctors prescribe for pain relief.
A Permissive adult submits to their children's desires. They make few demands and use little punishment. Their children tend to be more aggressive and immature.
The Pupil is the small adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters. When it is dark out, the pupil gets bigger. On the contrary, when it is light out, the pupil gets smaller.
A Psychoactive Drug is a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses. Cigarettes and diet pills are some examples. Another example is a sleep pill.
In language, Phonemes are the smallest and distinctive sound unit. For example, 'cat' has 3 phonemes: c,a, and t
Proactive interference is the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. It is forward acting. For example, learning how to use an iPhone over the non touch screen cell phones.
Positive Punishment is a type of punishment when an unpleasant stimulus is added to decrease the behavior. For example, when a child misbehaves and is spanked. Another example is when a mother washes a child's mouth out with soap for swearing.
Rene Descartes was a French philosopher/scientist who shared Socrates and Plato's opinion that knowledge is innate. He concluded that the fluid in the brain's cavities contained "animal spirits". The spirits flowed through the brain to the nerves to the muscles, provoking movement.
Resting Potential is the positive/negative inside state. The fluid interior o f a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged ions, and the outside has more positive charged ions. The surface of the axon is very selective about what it lets in.
The Refractory Period is the short resting period between the action potentials. This is like how you have to wait awhile before you can flush the toilet again.
The Retina is the multi-layered tissue on the eye's light-sensitive inner surface. It contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information. The lens focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina.
Retinal Disparity is a binocular cue for perceiving depth. By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance. The greater the disparity between the two images, the closer the object.
Retinal Height is a Monocular Cue that says we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. Objects lower in our field of vision appear closer. Because we perceive the lower part of a figure-ground illustration as closer, we perceive it as a figure.
The Synapse is the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic cleft. The synapse causes a brief interruption in the transmission of neural impulses.
Split Brain Surgery
Split brain surgery is the cutting of the corpus callosum so the left and right side of the brain aren't connected. This is to prevent problems like seizures. Roger Sperry was the scientific mind behind split brain surgery.
The Sensorimotor Period is from birth to two years old, when infants know the world through mostly their senses and motor activities-through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Infants can also discriminate between possible and impossible objects. Once a child has Object Permanence, they move past this stage.
Secure attachment in infants is when in their mother's presence they play comfortable, and when she leaves they are distressed. When she comes back, they seek contact with her. This occurs in 60% of children.
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) is a pair of grain-of-rice sized, 20,000 cell clusters in the hypothalamus . It causes the brain's pineal gland to decrease its production of melatonin in the morning, or increases it in the evening. The SCN is triggered by light-sensitive retinal proteins.
Sleepwalking is when a person walks in their sleep, and it is usually harmless and unrecalled in the morning. Young children who have the lengthiest Stage 4 sleep are most likely to experience this. This disorder runs in families.
Tichener was a student of William Wundt, and he joined the Cornell University and introduced the psychology of structuralism. He aimed to discover the structural elements of the mind. His method was to engage people in self-reflective introspection, training them to report elements of their experience as they looked at a rose, listened to a metronome, smelled a scent, or tasted a substance.
Testosterone is the most important hormone of the male sex organs. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in the male stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. The male's greater output of testosterone starts the development of external male sex organs at about the seventh week.
Temperament is a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. There are three type of temperaments: Easy children, who are predictable, slow to warm up children, who are shy, and difficult children, who are irritable and intense. Every child is born with a temperament.
Two Word Stage
The Two Word Stage, or Telegraphic Speech, is when a child speaks mostly in two-word statements. This happens around 18 months. A child speaks like a telegram, mostly using nouns and verbs. For example, they may say, "Go car".
Tolerance is produced with the continued use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs. As the user's brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug effect, the user requires larger and larger doses to experience the same effect. The brain, heart, and liver of a person addicted to alcohol suffer damage from the excessive alcohol being "tolerated".
The Temporal Lobe includes the auditory areas, each receiving information from the opposite ear. It is located roughly above the ears. It contains the Auditory Cortex ad the Wernickes Area.
Umami is the a savory meat taste that is sensed by the fifth taste receptor. It is best experienced as the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate. Our ancestors used the taste of umami because meat helps proteins to grow and repair tissue.
Universal Inborn Language
Noam Chomsky said Language is a Universal grammar. It happens naturally, and gets redefined by culture. This is also called Nativism.
In classical conditioning, the Unconditioned Stimulus is a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response. For example, food would be an unconditioned stimulus. Another example is an air puff, causing the eye to blink.
An Unconditioned Response is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus. For example, salivation would be an unconditioned response to food, which is an unconditioned stimulus. Another example is a blink to an air puff.
Ventricles are the fluid-filled cavities that contains the cerebrospinal fluid. It allows the brain to "float". The ventricles protect the brain from a blow to the head, and the pressure of the brain is reduced due to the buoyancy. They are also involved in the excretion of waste products away from the brain.
Vygostky was a Russian developmental psychologist who studied how a child's mind feeds on the language of social interaction. He said that by age 7, children become increasingly capable of thinking in words and of using words to word out solutions to problems. He noted that they do this by internalizing their culture's language and relying on inner speech.
The Volley Principle is that neural cells can alternate firing. This is similar to how soldiers alternate firing so that some can shoot while others reload, By firing in rapid succession, they can achieve a combined frequency above 1000 waves per second.
The Visual Cliff is a laboratory device used for testing depth perception in infants and young animals. Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk devised this miniature cliff with a glass-covered drop-of. Even when coaxed, infants are reluctant to venture onto the glass over the cliff.
Variable Ratio Schedule
A Variable Ratio Schedule is a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. This type of schedule has a high rate of responding. For example, playing on a slot machine is a variable ratio.
Variable Interval Schedule
A Variable Interval Schedule is a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. It has a slow, steady responding rate. An example is fishing.
1980 оноос хойш жилд дунджаар 328,2 мянган га ой түймэрт өртөж байна. 1996-1997 он гэхэд 5,0 сая гаруй га ой түймэрт өртсөн байна.
1996-2012 онуудад жилд дунджаар 178 удаагийн ой хээрийн түймэр гарч нийт 6.3 тэрбум төгрөгний хохирол учируулж байна. Үүнд:
6,0 тэрбум төгрөгний экологийн хохирол,
0,2 тэрбум төгрөгний эд материалын хохирол
түймэр унтраахад 0,1 тэрбум төгрөгний шууд зардал гарсан.
Intrinsic motivation is a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. For example, if you are curious about learning material for its own sake. Intrinsically motivated people work and play in search of enjoyment, interest, self-expression, or challenge.
Washburn, Margaret Floy
Washburn was the first woman to receive her psychology PhD. She synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind. She also became the second female APA president in 1921.
Wilhelm Wundt was a professor who established the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Wundt was seeking to measure "atoms of the mind"-the fastest and simplest mental processes. This is what many consider psychology's first experiment.
The Wernicke's Area controls language reception. It is a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression. It is located in the left temporal lobe.
Wavelength in Vision
A wavelength is the distance from one peak to the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission. The wavelength determines its hue.
Wavelength in Sound
The number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given time is the frequency. The wavelength determines the pitch. Long waves have low frequency, and short waves have high frequency.
Wish Fulfillment Dream Theory
The Wish Fulfillment Dream Theory says that we dream about our unconscious drives and wishes that would be threatening if expressed directly. Freud came up with this theory, and said that dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings. He believed that most adult dreams can be "traced back to erotic wishes."
The X-Chromosome is a factor that determines your sex. The X-Chromosome is always received from the mother. If received from the father as well, it makes you a girl.
The eXcitatory impulse means that the signal from the is open or on. It is lie pushing a neuron's accelerator. If eXcitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity, or threshold, the combined signals trigger and action potential. The eXcitatory impulse hasto exceed the inhibitory impulse, like a class vote.
eXperimental psychologists are a diverse group of scientists who investigate a variety of basic behavior processes in research involving humans and other animals. Most identify with a particular subfield, such as cognitive psychology. An eXperimental psychologist would most likely work in a n academic setting, teaching courses and supervising students' research in addition to conductig your own research using experimental methodology
eXpectancy effects are when people believe that the alcohol affects social behavior in certain ways and believe right or wrongly that they have been drinking alcohol, they will behave accordingly. In a study where half of the participants thought they were drinking alcohol and half not, they were watching an erotic movie clip and the men who thought they consumed alcohol were more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and feeling guilt-free. The effect lies partly in the mind.
Xstasy is a street name for MDMA, a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It triggers dopamine release, but mostly releases stored serotonin and blocks its reabsorbtion. After 30 minutes, users enter a period of 3-4 hours of emotional elevation and connectedness with those around them.
X (cross) Sectional Study
A X Sectional Study is when people of various ages are compared with one another. This study shows a decline intelligence as people age. The problem with this study is it compares people of different eras.
The Y-chromosome is the 23rd pair of chromosomes, the sex chromosome. If you receive this from your father, you are a boy. I also includes a single gene that throws a master switch triggering the testes to develop and produce.
The Zollner Illusion is like the Poggendorff Illusion, which is the misinterpretation of the continuation of lines. The lines going horizontal are actually parallel, but the criss-crossing lines make the lines not look straight.
Interneurons are neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs. They are the links between afferent and efferent neurons.
Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist. He said that the child's mind develops through a series of stages. The driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences.
Judgmental overconfidence is when humans tend to think they know more than they do. For example, you may think you know a lot about history, but if you take a test on it, you may not do so hot.
Jerome Kagan developed the Sense of Self concept., which develops around the age of 2.
John B. Watson came believed in Behaviorism. He said that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. He believed in Operant Conditioning.
John Garcia researched the effects of radiation on lab animals. He noticed that the rats avoided water from plastic bottles in radiation chambers. Each species' predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival.
Konrad Lorenze asked, "What would ducklings do if I was the first moving creature they observed?" They followed him everywhere. This was how he came upon the concept of imprinting.
Kinesthesis is the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. Important sensors in your joints, tendons, bones, and ears, and skin sensors enable your kinesthesis. Ian Waterman contracted a rare viral infection that destroyed the nerves that enabled his sense of light touch and of body position and movement. People with this ondition feel disembodied.
K-Complexes are the largest event in healthy human EEG. These occur in Stage 2 of sleep. They are larger than sleep spindles.
Karl Lashley demonstrated that memories do not lie in single, specific spots. He trained rats to find their way out of a maze, then cut out pieces of the cortex and retested their memory. The rats retained at least a partial memory. We do not store information in discrete, precise locations.
Kletiman discovered REM sleep. his PhD advisor demonstrated that "REM" was correlated with dreaming and increased brain activity.
Qualities obtained from Biological Parents
From your biological personality, you obtain your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, action. Of your biological parent suffers from Schizophrenia, your risk increases, regardless of the environment.
Qualities obtained Adoptive Parents
Your adoptive parents influence children's attitudes, values, manners, faith, and politics. These children tend to grow up to be more self-giving. They tend to score higher on intelligence tests, grow into happie and more stable adults.
Quantitative psychologists study the methods and techniques used to acquire psychological knowledge. They collaborate with researchers to design, analyze, and interpret the results of research programs. They will most likely be employed by a university or college, testing company, private research firm, or government agency.
A questionnaire, or survey, is a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group. Researchers do these when they want an estimate, of the attitudes of the whole population.
Quinn was a researcher who found that breast-fed infants grow up with somewhat higher intelligence scores than do infants bottle-fed with cow's milk. To isolate cause and effect, psychologists can statistically control for other factors.
Quinn was a researcher who said that to bring order and form to these basic sensations, our minds follow certain rules for grouping stimuli together. These rules, identified by the Gestalt psychologists and applied even by infants, illustrate the idea that the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Young-Helmholtz Three Color Theory
This theory states that the retina has 3 types of color receptors, especially sensitive to one of 3 colors. The colors are red, green, and blue. When stimulated in combination, it can produce the perception of any color.
The Zygote is a fertilized egg. It enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. Fewer than half survive beyond the first 2 weeks.
Zone of Proximal Development
A child's zone of proximal development was the zone between what they could learn with and without help. Vygotsky came up with this. Effective mentoring occurs when children are developmentally ready to learn a new skill.
Yawning occurs when a person feels sleepy and then yawns in response to reduced brain metabolism. It can be socially contagious, and it stretches a person's neck muscles and increases their heart rate, which increases their alertness.
Yarnell and a man, Lynch, did a study on football players. After long-term potentiation has occurred, passing an electric current through the brain will wipe out very recent memories. They found that a blow to the head will do the same thing, and learned that football players and boxers knocked unconscious typically have no memory of the events just before the knock-out.
When studying depth perception, Yonas and Gonrad said judging from what they will reach for, 7-month-olds use the cast shadow of a toy to perceive its distance, while 5-month-olds don't. This suggests that in human infants, depth perception grows with age.
Young did a study that was reported in the British Medical Journal, and found that youths who identify with the goth sub culture attempt more often than other young people are likely to harm or kill themselves. This is a correlation not causation.
Zimbado is a psychologist and professor at Stanford University. He is known for his Stanford prison study. He gave participants personality tests.
Zogby said that teen boys more than teen girls or adults blast themselves with loud volumes for long periods. Males' greater noise exposure may help explain why men's hearing tends to be less acute than women's. But male or female, those who spend many hours in a loud nightclub, behind a power mower, or above a jackhammerr should wear earplugs.
Zucco was a researcher who said that compared with how we experience and remember sights and sounds, smells are almost primitive and certainly harder to describe and recall. Despite our skill at discriminating scents, we aren't very good at describing them Words more readily portray the sound of coffee brewing than its aroma.
Kaiser Family Foundation
Kaiser said that the more young children watch TV, the less they read. He also found that children age 0-6 spend as much time with TC, computers and video games as playimg outside.
UNIT 1Confounding VariablesCognitive PsychologistsCharles DarwinJohn LockeJudgmental OverconfidenceMary CalkinsQuantitative PsychologistsQuestionnaireQuinn, P.J.Rene DescartesTichener, E.B.UnconsciousWashburn, Margaret FloyWilhelm WundteXperimental psychologistsZibardo, PhilipKaiser Family Foundation
UNIT 3Alzheimer’s DiseaseAuthoritarianErik EriksonFetal Alcohol SyndromeG. Stanely HallHarry HarlowImprintingJean PiagetJerome KaganKonrad LorenzeLawrence KohlbergObject PermanencePermissiveSensorimotor PeriodSecure Attachment Testosterone TemperamentVygotsky, LeeX-ChromosomesX Sectional StudyY Chromosome ZygoteZone of Proximal Development
UNIT 7Biological PredispositionsDiscriminative StimulusEdward ThorndikeE.C. TolmanExtrinsic MotivationInsight LearningIntrinsic MotivationJohn B. WatsonJohn GarciaNegative ReinforcementPositive PunishmentUnconditioned StimulusUnconditioned ResponseVariable Ratio ScheduleVariable Interval Schedule
Ойгоор бүрхэгдсэн талбай
Байгалийн ой, сөөг, торлог, таримал ой
Ойгоор бүрхэгдээгүй талбай
Тармаг ой, шатсан ой, мод бэлтгэсэн талбай, байгалийн аясаар ойжиж байгаа, салхи, цасан унасан, ойжуулсан, ойн хөнөөлт шавж, өвчинд нэрвэгдсэн ой
Ойн бус талбай
Цагаан энгэр, намаг, хөрсний эвдрэлд орсон, МҮГ, элс, таг царам, тусгай зориулалтын халз зурвас
Манай улсын ойн сангийн зонхилох хувийг эзлэх шилмүүст навчит ойн талбайн сүүлийн 12 жилийн өөрчлөлтөөс үзэхэд Ойгоор бүрхэгдсэн талбайн эзлэх /
/ хувь буурч байгаа нь ойн байгаль экологид үзүүлэх
буурч, ойн сан
орж байгааг харуулж байна.
Ойгоор бүрхэгдсэн талбайн эзлэх /ойрхог чанар/ хувь багасч байгаа нь ойн байгаль экологид үзүүлэх ач холбогдол буурч, ойн сан доройтолд орж байна. Энд дараах хүчин зүйл нөлөөлж байна. Үүнд:
Ойн хөнөөлт шавж, өвчний хөнөөл,
Хүний үйл ажиллагаа
ны бусад сөрөг үр дагавар.
Ойн түймэр ба хуурайшилтын хоорондын хамаарал
Байгалийн аясаар сэргэн
ургаж буй талбай
Таримал ойн талбай /га/
Ойн үр, бэлтгэх, тарьц суулгац
Бүх нийтээр мод тарих өдөр
Ногоон хэрэм үндэсний хөтөлбөр
Хууль, эрх зүйн орчин, төсөв санхүүжилт, бүтэц зохион байгуулалт
Орон нутгийн төсөв
Ойн байгууллагын бүтэц зохион байгуулалт
ОЙН МЭРГЭЖЛИЙН БАЙГУУЛЛАГА
Ойн мэргэжилтэн бэлтгэх, гадаад хамтын ажиллагаа
Гадаад хамтын ажиллааганы талаар
ЧУУЛГАНААР ХЭЛЭЛЦЭХ АСУУДАЛ
АНХААРАЛ ТАВЬСАНД БАЯРЛАЛАА
Монгол орны ойн шавж
ОЙН ХӨНӨӨЛТ ШАВЖ, ӨВЧИН