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Tissue Culture

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Stephen Heffernan

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Tissue Culture

Overview of the Tissue Culture Process
More facts
The culture medium contains a gel (agar) with the proper mixture of nutrients, sugars, vitamins and hormones, which causes the plant part to grow at very rapid rates to produce new plantlets. It has been estimated that one chrysanthemum apex placed in tissue culture could produce up to 1,000,000 new plantlets in one year. Thus, tissue culture is used for rapid multiplication of plants. A very specialized laboratory is required for tissue culture. All the procedures are done in a laboratory and special ventilated cabinet that is as sterile as an operating room.
Once an embryo is established, it can be multiplied. By using a certain combination of hormones in the medium, new embryos will begin to grow out of the original one. As more embryos develop, the nutrients in the medium become exhausted. The new embryos are separated into smaller groups and transferred to fresh medium. Every two to three weeks, as more embryos grow, they are separated and transferred to fresh medium.

Regeneration and Rooting
The next step is to regenerate the embryos into shoots. To do this, the concentration of nutrients, sugar and hormones in the medium is changed. There are a total of three different media used during this process. Once the shoots develop, they are multiplied on yet another medium. The shoots are cut into smaller segments and transferred to fresh medium once month.

Now the shoots are ready to be rooted. They are dipped into a liquid solution of a rooting hormone and then placed in a charcoal medium to absorb the excess hormone. Anywhere from 10 to 60 percent of the shoots going through this process will develop roots. These rooted plants are put in potting mix and then they go through an acclimatization process.
Tissue Culture
If the conditions are right a small "forest" of plants. Will develop in the tissue culture container.
Tissue culture (often called micro propagation) is a special type of asexual propagation where a very small piece of tissue (shoot apex, leaf section, or even an individual cell) is excised (cut-out) and placed in sterile (aseptic) culture in a test tube, petri dish or tissue culture container containing a special culture medium.
Steps in tissue culture
The first step is to obtain what is called and explant. This means to simply cut-out a very small piece of leaf or stem tissue, or even isolate individual cells, and places them in a tissue culture container. The tissue has to be sterilized so it will not have any contaminating bacteria or fungus. It is then placed inside the tissue culture contain on a gel called agar. In the agar is dissolved all the sugar, nutrients and hormones the plant needs.
Video of the Tissue Culture act in the process
Some Tissue Culture can be genetically modified to glow.
Full transcript