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TEFL. SPEAKING

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by

Kmar Bellil

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of TEFL. SPEAKING

Difficulties
Types of Performance
Sonya Moalla
Noha Ben Abdelwahed
.
.
What are oral communication skills?
Micro and macro skills of oral communication
They refer to the skills speakers use in Conversational discourse and provide teachers a clear idea of what the learners actually need to perform in oral communication.
Both micro and Marco skills are focused on the forms and functions of language and can become testing criteria in speaking evaluation.

Pronunciation
Example 1: Fox and fog
Six and sick
Sea and she

Example 2: Present with stress in the first syllable, whereas she uses it in sentence (I’d like to present).

The teacher should spend some time teaching pronunciation(drills)

Accuracy and fluency


What is Accuracy?
1. Clear and articulate speaking

2. Language free from grammar mistakes

3. Words spelled and pronounced correctly

4. Language is appropriate to the situation and context.




Affective factors
:
It’s important to be
confident
while speaking a second or foreign language.
For this reason teachers should encourage their students to speak and should emphasis the idea that they are only learners and there is nothing wrong in making mistakes.

Mark Twain
said” it’s better to keep your mouth closed and have others think you are ignorant than open it and remove all doubts”.
According to this, students tend to stay silent fearing to embarrass themselves.

Heuristic Vs Non-heuristic Approach
2.intensive
:Intensive speaking provide learners the opportunity to ‘go over’ and use certain forms of language through controlled speech production
4.Transactional (dialogue)
Teaching Speaking
Speaking Difficulties
Oral Communication Skills
Micro- and Macroskills of oral communication
Types of Classroom Speaking Performance
Heuristic Vs Non-heuristic Approach
Implementing a Classroom Discussion

A teacher thus, should:
Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication.
Encourage them to develop speaking strategies.
Mark twain said “our job is to provide the kind of warm, embracing climate that encourage students to speak”.

It is subjective,gives students awareness of their cognitive-linguistic progress and learner-centered.(Green,Cristopher and Lam)
"students are set loose to engage in interaction"(Richards,1990)
students are not taught conversation. they aquire conversational competence through meaningful tasks.(Brown,2007
Heuristic
Indirect
Non-heuristic
Direct
Implementing a classroom discussion
1.Imitative
:occurs not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form
3.responsive
"these characteristics of spoken language can make oral performance easy as well as,in some cases,difficult."
(Brown,2007)
Bellil Kmar
Farah Yacoub
.
By
1
.Clustering
2
. Redundancy
3
.Reduced forms : (e.g.gonna,cause...)
4
.Performance variables:(e.g.uh,um,well...)
5
.colloquial language
7
.Rate of delivery
6
.Stress,rhythm,and intonation
8
.Interaction

What is fluency?
It focuses on the flow of language.
Sentences must be spoken smoothly and with few pauses.
Students should participate in conversations.

Fluency consists of more than responses to questions. Students must be able to add details,participate and easily express themselves.

Theses 2 components are equally necessary.
Learning English for business purposes is different than learning it to pursue higher education. Therefore the need for fluency and accuracy relates to what goals learner want to achieve.

Macro-skills of Oral communication

⦁ Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse

⦁ Use appropriate registers , implicature , pragmatic conventions and other sociolinguistic features in face to face conversation.

⦁ Use facial features, kinesics, body language (non verbal) with verbal language to convey meanings.

⦁ Develop and use speaking strategies such as emphasizing, rephrasing, providing a context, asking for help, using circumlocutions…

Micro-skills of oral communication

⦁ Produce chunks of language of different lengths

⦁ Produce English stress patters and intonations contours

⦁ Produce fluent speech

⦁ Use grammatical patterns and rules

⦁ Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms

5.Interpersonal (dialogue)
6.Extensive
(monologue):Monologues usually occur when students are asked to give oral reports summaries or short speeches
The use of structered or guided discussions
According to the article
Developing Discussion Skills
it's a solution adopted by many teachers.
The direct approach focuses on conversational rules, conventions and strategies.(
Brown,2007
)
The personal involvement, cognitive and interpersonal factors are downplayed compared to linguistic factors.(Green,1993)
Sample Speaking Lesson
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