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Grammar & Punctuation

Functional Skills - English
by

Gausiya Bade

on 21 July 2013

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Transcript of Grammar & Punctuation

NOUNS
Grammar and Punctuation
What is Grammar
Now try the
proofreading task

Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the “rules” of a language.
Parts of Speech
Punctuation
The act or practice of inserting standardised marks or signs in written matter to clarify the meaning and separate structural units; also : a system of punctuation
PRONOUNS
VERBS
ADVERBS
ADJECTIVES
A noun is a person, a place, a thing, an idea or a concept.
For example:
 - Person:
the postman, a teacher, Tom, a neighbour.
 - Place:
a village, England, Edinburgh, a street, a park.
 - Thing:
a box, a banana, a computer.
 - Idea or concept:
beauty, information, importance.

The subject of a sentence is always a noun:
The park is near my house
. (‘
Park
’ goes with the verb ‘is’.)

The object of the sentence is also a noun:
I like chocolate.
(‘
Chocolate
’ is not doing the liking, it is liked.)

Nouns can be singular (there is one thing):
My
desk
is near the window.

Or they can be plural (there is more than one thing):
There are not enough
desks
in the office.
A
noun
is a person, place or thing (eg
Brian, the car, the dog, Sunita, London
).

A
pronoun
is a word that can be used in place of a noun.

A
personal pronoun
is used in place of a noun that is a person or a thing.

Personal pronouns for people =
I, you, he, she, we, they, me, you, him, her, us, them

Personal pronouns for things =
it, they, them, that
Verbs tell us what people (or things) are doing or being.
They can change according to the time
being spoken about: past, present or future:

For example:
Sam
finished
his homework in the library.
In this sentence ‘
finished
’ is the verb (it says what Sam did with his homework in the past).

All sentences need a verb. Here are some examples:
- Jenny
reads
the Metro on the train every morning.
- That bicycle
belongs
to me.

Two verbs are sometimes put together, especially with verbs like
can, must, should.
- I
can see
the sea from my house.
- You really
must see
the new Bond film.
Adverbs are words that tell us more about verbs - they add information to the verb.
(A verb is a ‘doing’ word or a ‘being’ word: eg walk, feel.)

Using adverbs makes your sentences more interesting. Any verb you use can have an adverb
added:
- The girl smiled
nervously
.
- The boy grinned
sheepishly.
- The light shone
feebly
.

We use adverbs:
 To say how something happens:
- The family walk (how?)
quickly
.

To say where or when something happens:
- I met him (when?)
yesterday.

To say how often something happens:
- She gets the bus (how often?)
daily
.

Adverbs are often created from adjectives (describing words that tell you more about nouns) by
adding -ly to the end of the adjective: For example:
-
slow becomes slowly
: Joe is a slow person. He walks
slowly
.
Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns.

Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives makes your sentences more interesting:
The pretty girls laughed.
In this sentence: ‘girls’ is the noun (it says who’s laughing).

pretty
’ is the adjective (it says more about the noun).

Here are some more sentences with nouns and adjectives:
- The
fat
captain ate dinner.
-
Old
Hani and I drove up the big hill.

Remember that adjectives tell you about the noun, they describe the noun. Don’t confuse
adjectives with adverbs.
Adverbs describe the verb, they tell you more about an action
eg
He laughed loudly
.

There are rules about the order in which adjectives should be placed when you use more than
one, but the best way to understand how to use them is to say the sentence to yourself.
Does it sound right?
To be a good teacher you need to be creative, resourceful and patient.
Not strong enough to end a sentence.
Can separate 2 parts (clauses) of the same sentence.
Also used to separate items in a list.


Even though I love doughnuts, my sister hates them.
The comma
Links, contrasts or balances two related ideas within 1 sentence.
A pause between 2 parts of a sentence that could stand alone.




I love doughnuts; my sister hates them.
The semi colon
Strong enough to end a sentence.
Shows when an idea has finished.
Capital letter needed next.
The full stop
The punctuation family
A pause to introduce something.
Not strong enough to end a sentence, so no capital letter needed next.




The rainbow has 7 colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
The colon
And Maggie is the baby comma, the weakest of them all.
Lisa is the semi colon. She’s stronger than a comma.
Bart is the colon. He’s not as strong as the full stop.
Homer represents the full stop. The daddy. The strongest.
. : ; ,
Apostrophes
Apostrophes have two uses...
Some plurals do not end in ‘s’.
If this is the case, the apostrophe goes before the ‘s’:


The geese’s honking drove me nuts!


The children’s game was a bit loud and messy.
Now for the tricky bit!
Sometimes things belong to more than one person or object.
If the plural ends in ‘s’ (and it often does!) the apostrophe goes on the outside of the word:


The dogs’ bowl is dirty
.
(
More than one dog uses the bowl.
)


I reformatted the computers’ hard drives.
(
More than one computer.
)
We use apostrophes to indicate possession:

I drove Mary’s car
.
(The
car
belonging to
Mary
.)

I reformatted the computer’s hard drive.
(The
hard drive
belonging to the
computer
.)
We use apostrophes to indicate missing letters (omission) when we shorten words:


We’ll It’s They’re It’ll



Shouldn’t Can’t He’s

The rule is that the apostrophe goes where the missing letter or letters would be.
We do not use apostrophes with personal pronouns as they already indicate ownership.


The dog is wagging it’s tail 
MEANS

The dog is wagging it is tail ?
A note of caution!!
How important
is spelling?

CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
This is why spelling matters...
EVER WANTED A TATTOO?
CORRECT THE MISTAKES:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
CORRECT THE MISTAKE:
Eye have a spelling chequer
It came with my Pea Sea
It plane lee marks four my revue
Miss steaks eye can knot sea

Eye strike the quays and type a word
And weight four it two say
Weather eye am write oar wrong
its tells me straight a weigh

Eye ran this poem threw it
Your shore real glad to no
Its vary polished in its weigh
My chequer told me sew
I have a spelling checker
It came with my PC
It plainly marks for my review
Mistakes I cannot see

I strike the keys and type a word
And wait for it to say
Whether I am right or wrong
It tells me straight away

I ran this poem through it
You're sure real glad to know
It's very polished in its way
My checker told me so
If you want to create a good impression in your writing and make sure you get your meaning across clearly, it’s important to get your spelling right.
i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg.
The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno’t mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae..
The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.
Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg.
I couldn't believe that I could actually understand what I was reading.

The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno’t mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae..
The phenomenal power of the human mind, according to a researcher from Cambridge University, it doesn't matter in what order the letters in a word are, the only important thing is that the first and last letter be in the right place...

The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.
The rest can be a total mess and you can still read it without a problem.

Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
This is because the human mind does not read each letter by itself, but the word as a whole.

Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!
Amazing huh? yeah and I always thought spelling was important!
Full transcript