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History of the English Language

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Emil Hasselqvist

on 31 August 2016

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Transcript of History of the English Language

410-1066 AD:
OLD ENGLISH

Norman Conquest: 1066
History of English:
The Shakespearean Era
Changes in the Language
1. The Great Vowel Shift
: where vowels began being pronounced shorter and shorter
So, consider....
What is the English of "Beowulf"?
What is the English of "The Canterbury Tales"?
What English(es) do YOU prefer to read?
What English(es) do YOU speak?
Anglo-Saxon
Old English
The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call
Old English
.

Old English does not look or sound like Modern English today, though more than half of Modern English words have Old English roots!
history of the English Language
Excerpt from Beowulf:
Old English Alphabet:
The History of the English Language Part I
Norman Conquest:
The Normans come from France & invade England.

The Normans brought a type of French with them and integrated it in with Old English. This created what we call "Middle English".
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales were written in Middle English

The Canterbury Tales: Prologue
Middle English
1500-1800
"Early Modern English"
4. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.
2. The invention of the printing press made text more accessible, though only the wealthy/educated could read.

3. Printing also brought about the "standardization" of English grammar/spelling conventions.
Gutenberg Printing Press
1439
Johannes Gutenberg
German blacksmith
oil-based ink + wooden printing press = mass production of text
English in the industrialized world
modernizing english...
English & Empire 1583-1914
Age of the Dictionary 1746-1755
American English 1607-1937
Internet English
Global English
10 minute recap
The Nordics
Words we gained from the Germanic Tribes!
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE:
Indo-European Languages
Language & dialect families originating from areas between Western Europe and Northeast India.
Western Europe
Northeast India
GREEK, SANSKRIT, & LATIN have similar INDO-EUROPEAN origins.
GREEK
SANSKRIT
LATIN
Watch the map's animation, and notice how languages spread, break off, disappear, or change.

What did you notice?
As Indo-European languages spread, the expansion of Germanic, or Anglo-Saxon, English occurs across Europe.

The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
invade
modern-day England and took over the land from the Romans.

These Germanic tribes bring their Germanic languages with them to "Engaland" and begin speaking "Englisc".


OLD ENGLISH
we call this "GERMANIC" or "ANGLO-SAXON" English
"Vikings"
NOW, in groups of 2-3 read the first section of "A (Brief) History of Language" & annotate for KEY phrases.

After, write a SUMMARY (3-4 sentences) of the section in your group. Turn in ONE summary per group. Make sure it's your BEST work!
Focus on: INDO-EUROPEAN
NOW, in groups of 2-3 read the Old English section of "A (Brief) History of Language" & annotate for KEY phrases.

After, write a SUMMARY (3-4 sentences) of the section in your group. Turn in ONE summary per group. Make sure it's your BEST work!
Now, LISTEN to this sample of Proto-Indo-European.
Do you recognize any words or sounds?
Does this remind you of any language you know of?
TURN & TALK!
LANGUAGE FAMILY TREES
*dialect: a particular form of a language
CONSIDER:
Exactly HOW did the Germanic tribes bring their languages to Britain?

WHY were the tribes able to gain dominance in Britain with their language?

Reflect upon you own language practices.
What language(s) do you speak? Are there any languages you wish you could speak & why?

Do you feel that your OWN language(s) is tied to your identity? Why or why not?

In your opinion, does LANGUAGE = IDENTITY?
ENTRY TASK 9.23
Reflect upon you own language practices.
What language(s) do you speak? Are there any languages you wish you could speak & why?

Do you feel that your OWN language(s) is tied to your identity? Why or why not?

In your opinion, does LANGUAGE = IDENTITY?
Bayeux Tapestry
ENTRY TASK:
Certain pieces of artwork are seen as historical or cultural artifacts.
1. What does it take for a piece of art to become famous?
2. Name at least one example/reference of a famous piece of art you know of and tell me why you believe it's famous.
Read the text talk "translation" of Shakespeare's tragic love story Romeo & Juliet .

1. What does this type of translation do to the story of Romeo & Juliet?

2. Do you think that this translation is adding or taking away meaning from the Shakespeare play?
Entry Task

During the years of the British Empire, English became the dominant language all over the world
Cognates
One of the most important concepts when understanding language development is the theory of
cognates

Cognates are words in two different languages that share similar meanings and features
Watch our for false cognates though!
English

family
center
magic
class
radio
gorilla
Spanish

familia
centro
magia
clase
radio
gorila
Real cognates!
False cognates!
English

globe
pie
large
rope
Spanish

globo (balloon)
pie (foot)
largo (long)
ropa (clothes)
Full transcript