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Classical & Hellenistic Philosophy
Transcript of Classical & Hellenistic Philosophy
Philosopher = “lover of wisdom”
1. The universe (land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws
2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Zeno and Epicurus
What are the main differences between Stoics and Epicureans? Which do you agree more with?
How did Hellenistic philosophers differ from Classical Greek philosophers?
What is the difference between idealism and realism? Which do you agree more with?
Believed absolute standards do exist for truth and justice
Encouraged Greeks to question everything and "know thyself"
399 BC – brought to trial and sentenced to death (hemlock) for…
Corrupting the youth of Athens
Neglecting the city’s gods
A student of Socrates
His vision of a perfectly governed society
Led by a philosopher-king = one with the greatest insight and intellect
Cannot exist in reality
Allegory of the Cave
Our senses don't show us reality
There is a higher, ideal reality that we cannot understand
A student of Plato
Believed that we can learn things about our reality by using our senses to observe the world around us (the world's first true scientist)
Points out the flaws Plato's theories about government and reality
School of thought = stoicism
Find happiness by...
Turning away from human desires like power and wealth
Living in harmony with the will of nature (going with the flow)
Modern meaning of stoic = indifferent to pain, pleasure, etc.
School of thought = epicureanism
Find happiness by...
Actively seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
Living a simple life
Modern meaning of epicurean = enjoying the finer things in life
School of thought...
Humans discover truth by...