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Classical & Hellenistic Philosophy

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Matthew Joyal

on 27 September 2017

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Transcript of Classical & Hellenistic Philosophy

Philosophers Search for Truth
CLASSICAL &
HELLENISTIC
PHILOSOPHY

Philosopher = “lover of wisdom”

Two assumptions…

1. The universe (land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws

2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason

Introduction
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Classical Philosophers
Zeno and Epicurus
Hellenistic Philosophers
What are the main differences between Stoics and Epicureans? Which do you agree more with?

How did Hellenistic philosophers differ from Classical Greek philosophers?

What is the difference between idealism and realism? Which do you agree more with?
Concluding Questions
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
Believed absolute standards do exist for truth and justice

Encouraged Greeks to question everything and "know thyself"

399 BC – brought to trial and sentenced to death (hemlock) for…
Corrupting the youth of Athens
Neglecting the city’s gods

A student of Socrates

An idealist

The Republic
His vision of a perfectly governed society
Led by a philosopher-king = one with the greatest insight and intellect
Cannot exist in reality

Allegory of the Cave
Our senses don't show us reality
There is a higher, ideal reality that we cannot understand
A student of Plato

A realist

Believed that we can learn things about our reality by using our senses to observe the world around us (the world's first true scientist)

Points out the flaws Plato's theories about government and reality



Zeno
Epicurus
School of thought = stoicism

Find happiness by...
Turning away from human desires like power and wealth
Living in harmony with the will of nature (going with the flow)

Modern meaning of stoic = indifferent to pain, pleasure, etc.
School of thought = epicureanism

Find happiness by...
Actively seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
Avoiding politics
Living a simple life

Modern meaning of epicurean = enjoying the finer things in life

Plato Aristotle
School of thought...

Humans are...

Discovery happens...

Humans discover truth by...
Idealism

Full

Internally

Thinking
Realism

Empty

Externally

Observing
Full transcript