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Wisconsin History

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by

Jessica Schummer

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of Wisconsin History

Winnebago
People of the dirty water
Jamestown vs. Quebec
The first settlements
Pelts & Souls
Animal Pelts, Native American Souls
Etienne Brule
First Frenchman to live among Indians
The "Great River"
Menominee
The People
The Mississippi River
Algonquins tell Allouez about the "Messipi"
"sepi" = river
French send
Louis Joliet
(mapmaker, explorer, fur trader) to search for the Mississippi in 1672.
Traveled west, found Meskousing (Wisconsin) River
Reached Mississippi River, only went down to the mouth of the Arkansas River
Dakota
Sioux
Lived partially in Wisconsin but also in Minnesota

Menace to missionaries, but interested in French trading goods

Make enemies of Ojibwa and other Wisconsin tribes by attacking trappers and traders
Jesuits
Missionaries who attempt to convert Native Americans to Christianity
Claude Allouez
- Jesuit named the vicar-general for the whole interior of the continent in 1663
Settled on Madeline Island, in a village Christian Hurons created, named it
La Pointe
Transfers his missionary endeavors to GB, est. first permanent mission house in the area,
St. Francis Xavier at De Pere
Jacques Marquette
- takes Allouez's place at La Pointe
Founds Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie
Very little success
Required vast life changes to convert, especially for women
Wisconsin History

Chapter 2
French, Furs, Indians, and War
1607

England

Individuals

Not supported by
government
1608

France

Endorsed groups

In service to the King
French Goals in the Great Lakes Region in the 1600s:

Get pelts of woodland animals
Convert native inhabitants to Christianity
Algonquin vs. Iroquois
Algonquin
Samuel de Champlain

French Geographer and Map Maker
1st Governor-General of New France
Goes with Hurons to Lake Champlain in 1609
Meets Iroquois warriors and scares them with muskets

*Policy to send Frenchmen to
live among Indians*
Company of 100 Associates
Established in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu

Granted a monopoly on the fur trade

"Give and Take"
They get monopoly on all trade (except fisheries)
Give transportation, food, land to colonists
Took more than they gave

Establish trading posts @ Green Bay and the Apostle Islands
Iroquois
Live in the St. Lawrence Valley

Northern Great Lakes area

Nomadic

Hunting and Fishing

Wigwams (wetu)
South and East of Lake Ontario

Present Day New York

Agriculture

Semi-permanent villages

"Longhouses"
Division between two language families
Indian Friendship Web, 1603-1667
Iroquois
French
Huron
Algonquin
Red= not peaceful
Blue= peaceful
Winnebago
Menominee
pages 19-25
Lived with Hurons starting in 1610
Adopted dress, picked up language
Probably Illiterate->no records
20 years of expeditions, all the way South to the Chesapeake Bay and North to Lake Superior
Jean Nicolet
Another Frenchman who lived among Indians
Lived with tribes along the fur trading route for 10 years, starting in 1618
Lost records to canoe spill
Employed by French trading company
1634 -> Went to GB, Winnebago
China = Green Bay
A Failed Mission
Fiercely loyal to France for 150 years
Heavily Dependent on Ag
Became hunters and trappers after Nicolet's visit
Almost wiped out by disease around 1660
Ho-Chunk Nation today
Neighbors of the Winnebago
More dependent on hunting
Join fur trade in 1667
Hold certain animals in reverence
War Party
Villages fought each other over hunting ground or wild rice marshes
Warrior would start a
war party
and ask other men to join them
Young men introduced to warfare by uncles, who were responsible for their survival
War party disbanded after completing a raid
Nicholas Perrot
Green Bay Trader
Little Buttes des Morts
French and Indian War
Seven Years' War
French vs. British (with Native groups on both sides)
1756-1763
Terminated French empire in North America
France cedes Canada to British, as well as Louisiana East of the Mississippi
Charles Langlade
- French soldier who wanted Wisconsin to participate in the war
Commanded force of Wisconsin Indians (mainly Ojibwa) and won battles at Monongahela Valley and the Plains of Abraham
Anishinabe
"Original Man"
Called
Ojibwa
by neighbors, meaning "those who make pictographs"
French call them Saulteurs- "People of the Straights"
Superb hunters and trappers
Moved west along the south shore of Lake Superior
English corrupt Ojibwa, and called them
Chippewa
Coureurs de bois
Tough young men who traveled the western waters to buy furs
Evaded the monopoly on furs by the 100 associates
Pierre Esprit Radisson
Betrays French, helps British
Sieur des Groseilliers, "Lord of the Gooseberries"
Led trading party into Lake Huron and returned with 50 canoes full of Indians and furs
Carefree, tough young men
Duluth and Perrot managed to keep peace between Wisconsin tribes
Iroquois surrendered in 1700
1733 Battle between Fox and French
Fox refused to sue for peace
Battle took place on Wolf River west of Lake Winnebago
Both sides suffer heavy losses
1737, Fox confederacy breaks up and peace between Indians and French allows Fox return to Green Bay area
King George's War
Britain vs. France
1744-1748, weakened France's hold on Wisconsin
British prevented import of trading goods and drove prices at Mackinac up by 150%
Indians critical of French goods
British goods from Albany were better and cheaper
Difficulties Converting Natives
Especially women
No "instant" reward for following Christian God
Did not protect from evil spirits Natives believed in
Too many behavioral changes (polygamy not allowed)
Had to move to villages (out of woods)
Some men found this appealing, women did not
Women's conversion issues:
Takes away their role in society
Snare small animals, gather nuts and berries, harvest rice
Process hide and turns it into useful products

Came to Canada in 1672, settled in Montreal
1678- Led party to the western end of Lake Superior to the current city Duluth and negotiated peace between Ojibwa and Sioux
1679- Found route from the Brule River to St. Croix River to the Mississippi- wanted to find NW Passage
Daniel Greysolon,
Sieur du Luht
or Duluth
Full transcript