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Chapter 1: People in Motion
Transcript of Chapter 1: People in Motion
-How old is civilization?
-Ice Age to Stone Age: Paleo-Indians 12, 000-15,000 ya https://phys.org/news/2017-01-humans-north-america-years-earlier.html
-Simple tools, Clovis points, hunting and gathering
-Large mammal extinctions: over hunting, climate change, disease: http://archaeology.org/news/3610-scientists-say-overkill-hypothesis-confirmed
-Archaic Era: 9000 to 3000 years ago: which dates?
-Shaping the environment: burning underbrush, agriculture, irrigation
-5000 BCE: fixed agricultural communities in Mexico
-Urbanization, culture, art, engineering
-Mexica to Aztec: 1300-1521 CE
-Tenochtitlán: 300,000; empire: 371 city-states
-Stratified society, reliance on slaves, extensive trade
-Warfare as ritual
-Wealth of the Americas: gold, silver, pearls, dyes, cacao
-Spain: most powerful empire, 16th century
- "Fit to be ordered about, and made to work, plant, and do everything else that may be needed, and build towns, and be taught our customs."
--Sanitation and disease: http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/03/native-americans-didnt-wipe-europeans-diseases/
-Conquistadores: How did Cortés conquer the Mexica?
-New Spain: The Black Legend: indictment of Spanish cruelty toward natives: Bartolome de las Casas: http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=morris&book=samerican&story=cruelty
-Massive colonial government and influence from Catholic Church: conversions and control
-Encomienda economic system: vassals provide labor and noblemen provide for spiritual welfare
-50 million to 4 million indigenous population by 17th century in New Spain
European Civilization in Turmoil
-Renaissance, Reformation, and state building
-Luther: indulgences, salvation from belief, believers should read the Bible
-Calvin: the Elect, the presbytery
-Why is considering these religious views important?
-Economic control shift: Italy, Belgium, Amsterdam
-New economic practices and capitalism
-Printing, engraving, book industry, visual culture
-Technology: ships, cannons, navigation
-Ferdinand and Isabella, Spanish Inquisition
-Islam in Spain, reconquista
-Encounters between Europeans and people of the Americas and Africa
-Complicated interactions between cultures, economies, and the Columbian Exchange
-Different exploring countries: different regions and assumptions
-Beginning of common Atlantic history
-Portugal: West Africa and Brazil: sugar and slaves
-Spain: South America to southwest North America: silver
-France: Canada and Caribbean: furs, sugar and tobacco plantations
-England: North America
-Fishing and furs: France: Northwest Passage, Quebec
-Relationships with natives: dependence, intermarriage, missionaries
-England: Virginia: Latecomers due to wool, succession (http://www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/tudors/religion.htm), Ireland
-Expulsion and plantation
-Elizabeth I: 1558: Spain was a threat to the realm: The Armada victory
-Privateers and financing of exploration
-Sir Walter Raleigh, July 1585: Roanoke, Virginia: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/12/131208-roanoke-lost-colony-discovery-history-raleigh/
Chapter 1: People in Motion
The Atlantic World to 1590
West African Worlds
-Socially complex societies with cultural and religious diversity
-Trade with Europe since port of Carthage (814 BCE)
-Songhai Empire (1370-1591 CE): agricultural with urban centers, organized military, bureaucracy
-Timbuktu: Islamic university
-Igbos: smaller, autonomous villages: egalitarian
-Matrilineal vs. patrilineal
-Animism, ancestor worship, monotheism
-Islam became dominant religion of trade centers
-Portugal and West Africa: Prince Henry the Navigator, Vasco de Gama: trade and forts
-Madeiros, Azores, Cape Verde Islands: Canary Islands and the Guanche people
-Slavery in Africa: not permanent or hereditary
"European involvement in the African slave trade transformed the centuries-old institution into one of the most exploitative labor systems in world history."
-Visions of America, pg. 22
Indians, Fransiscans, and Spanish Colonization: The impact of the mission system on California Indians,
Jackson and Castilla, Page 3
-Mound builders: Hopewell, Adena and Great Serpent Mound
-Mississippians: 800 - 1500 C.E.: Cahokia
-Complex trade system, sophisticated technology
-15,000 people at height, vanished after 1400
"Proud of itself
is the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlán
Here no one fears to die in war.
This is our glory...."
-Anasazi - no rigid class structure, war for self-defense
-Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon: largest human dwelling until modern apartment buildings
-Trade and irrigation
-Eastern woodlands: grouped by language: Algonquian, Iroquoian, Muskogean
-Differences in housing, lifestyles, governance
-Iroquois Confederacy founded in 1142: Great Law of Peace