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Hypothyroidism; the Symptoms, Causes and Compilations and Re

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Rana Taher

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Hypothyroidism; the Symptoms, Causes and Compilations and Re

Causes of Hypothyroidism
Primary reason in Western countries: Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Primary reason worldwide (excluding western countries): Iodine deficiency

Other causes:
Thyroid surgery.
Radioactive iodine therapy
External beam radiation
Viral and bacterial infections (short-term)
Excessive iodine (temporary)
Genetics: Congenital hypothyroidism.
Since about 700 million years ago thyroxine (T4) was present in fibrous exoskeletal scleroproteins of the lowest invertebrates (Porifera and Anthozoa).
Some primitive marine vertebrates started to emerge from the iodine-rich sea and transferred to iodine-deficient fresh water and finally land, their diet became iodine deficient.
In order to adapt to their new environment, they also harboured vegetable iodide-competitors such as nitrates, nitrites, thiocyanates and some glycosides.
These animals needed a thyroid gland also as a reservoir of iodine.

Animals: Structures and Functions
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck.
It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism).
The most important hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
Part of the endocrine system.
Genetic Processes
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Animals: Structures and Functions
The thyroid gland
Diversity of Living Things
Inbreeding: reducing genetic diversity
Congenital hypothyroidism is an autosomal recessive disorder that is highly influenced by consanguinity and breeding.
Ecosystem/Environmental influences:
The cause of hypothyroidism varies greatly on the iodine deficiency levels regarding that it is the leading cause of an underactive thyroid worldwide.
Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDD) are highly impacted by the intake of a population of iodine, mainly in salts.
What is Hypothyroidism?
It is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone (1).
Also referred to as the Underactive thyroid.
This condition is more common in women than in men, and its incidence increases with age.
In Canada, Hypothyroidism affects approximately 2 individuals in 100 (2).
Non-physical symptoms
The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism vary, depending on the severity of the hormone deficiency. At first, the symptoms of hypothyroidism are barely noticeable. But as the metabolism continues to slow, Hypothyroidism signs and symptom may develop to:
Increased sensitivity to cold
Muscle weakness
Elevated blood cholesterol level
Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
Pain, stiffness or swelling in joints
Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
Slowed heart rate
Impaired memory

Physical Symptoms
swollen neck
hair loss
thinning of lateral eyebrows
periorbital edema (puffiness of the under eyes)
puffy dry face
narrowness of the eyes
Depending on what causes it.
Iodine deficiency: Iodine rich diet.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis: daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levothroid, Synthroid, others). This oral medication restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism.
mild cases- no need for treatment
My demonstration consists of one model of a human face. Half of the face and neck are of someone who does not have hypothyroidism; the other half outline the physical symptoms which usually occur to someone who developed hypothyroidism.
These symptoms will include swollen neck, hair loss, thinning of lateral eyebrows, periorbital edema (puffiness of the under eyes), puffy dry face, narrowness of the eyes.
The face model is made of clay which I sculpted and painted.
The purpose of this demonstration is to outline the physical change most hypothyroidism patients undergo.
An estimated 15 to 20 percent of cases are inherited.
Autosomal recessive:
Many inherited cases are recessive, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Most often, the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Autosomal dominant:
Some inherited cases have a pattern of inheritance, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.
It is a powerful antioxidant that strengthens the immune system This molecule is found in asparagus, broccoli, peaches, avocado, spinach, garlic, squash, and grapefruit.

Plants cannot survive without glutathions. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis.

It can boost the body’s ability to modulate and regulate the immune system, dampen autoimmune flare-ups, and protect and heal thyroid tissue. Tt is essential in fighting Hashimoto’s, which is the leading cause in North America.

For hypothyroidism patients, increasing glutathione-rich foods can aid with the treatment if the cause of the condition is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

The Thyroid gland.
Work Cited
Evolution of Thyroid gland and T4
Magazine Article
Journal Article
Overview: Geneticists study genes and the role they play in the passing of physical traits and medical conditions from one generation to the next. Their main tasks include Planning and conducting lab tests and experiments, Collecting and analyzing DNA samples, Developing drugs, gene therapies, better food crops, or other products, diagnosing and treating patients with genetic disorders.

rained physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. Endocrinologists treat people who suffer from hormonal imbalances, typically from glands in the endocrine system. The overall goal of treatment is to restore the normal balance of hormones found in a patient's body..

Health Care Administrator
Health care administrators work behind the scenes at hospitals and other medical facilities, making sure they run smoothly. Common administrative duties include developing policies and procedures, ensuring that policies and laws are being followed, coordinating departmental activities, and planning and evaluating health programs.

Kristin Clemens, MD
Third-year internal medicine resident at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in London, Ont
William Payne, MD
Site Chief for Family Medicine at Parkwood Hospital in London
Stan H.M. Van Uum, MD PhD
Staff endocrinologist at St Joseph’s Health Care in London and Associate Professor of Medicine at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry
The following three medical doctors published a medical journal in which they concluded that accurate diagnosis and surveillance of patients being treated for central hypothyroidism is of great importance. They stated that measuring only TSH levels is not sufficient, and can lead to incorrect treatment decisions. One must also monitor free T3 and T4 levels, and pay special attention to clinical signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
A recent study found out that the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is on the rise among young Mumbai women. A nationwide study was carried out that processed more than 32,000 Mumbai women’s test results to understand what afflicts city women nowadays. One of the alarming facts were that a shocking 19.2% of the results indicated hypothyroidism, which especially has been on an alarming rise among women between the age groups of 20 to 30 years making them 21.2% of the cases.The survey was conducted on International Day of Action for Women’s health on May 28.It is believed that the reason behind the rise in TSH that leads to the condition of hypothyroidism is pollution and stress, according to Dr Kiran Coelho, Consultant Obstetrics and Gynaecologist at Hinduja Healthcare Surgical. It is also suggested that less exercise is the key factor behind this fact.
"The thyroid is the conductor of the body that oversees its overall functioning. If that is on the rise, multiple things of the body are malfunctioning,” Dr.Coelho reminds. She also informs that hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome and obesity become inter-related once the body starts experiencing hormonal imbalance.

The magazine article "Hypothyroidism on the rise in Mumbai Women" presents an interesting case in an age population in which hypothyroidism should not be occurring in such high levels.
The article highlights the symptoms of hypothyroidism and its inter-connections with other thyroid diseases.
The article emphasizes the importance in genetics as part of the growth of the condition in Mumbai.
"The Epidemiology of Thyroid Disease"
Populations at particular risk tend to be remote and live in mountainous areas in South-East Asia, Latin America and Central Africa.
Congenital hypothyroidism affects about one newborn in 3500–4000 births and is the most treatable cause of mental retardation.
the prevalence of spontaneous hypothyroidism is between 1 and 2%, and it is more common in older women and 10 times more common in women than in men.
1) Mathur, Ruchi . 2013. Hypothyroidism [Internet]. Cleveland (OH):MedicineNet, Inc. ; [2013 Sep 10, cited 2014 may 7] . Available from: http://www.medicinenet.com/hypothyroidism/article.htm
2) Mayo Clinic Staff . 2012 Dec 1. Hyperthyroidism (Underactive thyroid) [Internet]. Scottsdale (AZ):Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; [ cited 2014 May 7] . Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/basics/definition/con-20021179?p=1
3) Wisse, Adam. 2013 Jul 6. Health Topics: Myxedema [Internet]. Bethesda (MD):A.D.A.M. inc.; [2014 Feb 26 , cited 2014 May 10] . Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000353.htm
4) American Thyroid Association Authors. 2012 May 21. Hypothyroidism [internet]. The American Thyroid Association. [cited 2014 May 11] . Avaiable from: http://www.thyroid.org/what-is-hypothyroidism. Accessed Aug. 22, 2012.
5) Vanderpump, Mark P. J. . 2011. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. British Medical Bulletin [Internet]. [ 2011 June 3, cited 2014 June 1] 99 (1): 39-51.. Available from: http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/1/39.full
6) Sharma Kanika . June 2014. Hypothyroidism on the rise in Mumbai women [Internet. Mumbai:Mid-Day Infomedia Ltd; [2014 Jun 3, cited 2014 Jun 3] . Available from: http://www.mid-day.com/articles/hypothyroidism-on-the-rise-in-mumbai-women/15349176 American Thyroid 7) Association Authors . 2012 Jun 4. Iodine Deficiency [Internet]. Iodine Deficiency; [ cited 2014 June 2] . Available from: http://www.thyroid.org/iodine-deficiency/
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