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Why Castles? A Project
Transcript of Why Castles? A Project
Castles came to Scotland soon after the invasion of the Normans.
The Scottish would brag about the architecture of there castles.
Many castles have massive stone towers and walls, built on hills, along natural waterways, by important trade crossroads, and near precarious approaches on cliffs. They were built by medieval soldiers in the 13th and early 14th centuries during the Wars of Independence.
Some of the bigger ones include Stirling, Falkirk And Edinburgh.
Scotland's rugged coastlines and highlands made perfect locations for strategic fortifications.
Bothwell Castle - Strathclyde
One of the finest fortresses can be found at this castle built in the 13th century.
Thick walls of red sand stone 60 feet high.
One of the largest stone castles in Scotland.
Caerlaverock Castle - Dumfriesshire
Castle with unique triangular shape, from the 13th century.
Why Were Castles Built? At first castles were built for army purposes, but later as feudal lords wanted to gain power and provide more protection for their workers castles became extremely popular. Methods used to attack castles Setting fire to the wooden walls- in the time of the first castles that were made out of wood enemy soldiers would set fire to the wooden walls of the castle. This made building castles out of stone more popular. Siege Tower- before people built moats around their castle the enemy soldiers could use a siege tower to get over the walls. Although the defending soldiers would many times pour oil or boiling water on them. Battering Ram- the battering ram would destroy the wooden gates to the castle. Castles then started to have metal gates. How Castle Building changed As the methods of attack grew stronger the castle had to grow stronger too. The biggest change was the moving from wood to stone, building with stone took much longer and was much more expensive. Then came smaller changes like moats, windows that you could shoot arrows out of but arrows cant be shot into them, higher walls, two sets of walls, etc… But then came a massive change, a change that made knights, and castles almost useless, gun powder was invented. When cannons came into play it didn’t matter how high your walls were, if you had a moat or not, if your windows were special, or how strong your gate is. This led to the end of the reign of castles. Advantages to living in a castle Serfs in a castle would work the land in return for protection. If the lord was nice, then even if there was drought or famine he would provide you with food or water becuase of your servises. The benofits for the kings were that he would be safe, he could have all of his entortainment when he liked because all of his staff lived in the castle. Disadvantages to living in a castle In most castles it would be very dirty and would have lots of rats. You are very closed off from society. Usually castles would have a strong odor that permeated the air. Why the castle became obsolete When gunpowder came then the high walls and moats couldn’t protect you, and protection was one of the reasons castles were so successful. Also once gunpowder came to Europe knights became useless because it doesn’t matter how good of a warrior you are a cannon or a gunshot will kill you, so kings would stop giving away land to knights so that they would fight for you. Parts of a Castle Moat- A moat is a deep, broad ditch, filled with water that surrounds a castle. Dungeon- A dungeon is a room or cell where prisoners are put. It is usually underground or in a tower. Drawbridge- A wooden Structure that could be raised or lowered by will of the lord of the castle. Towers- They allowed people to look outside and inside of the castle, it was usually used for defense purposes. Keep- The highest point and center of defense in a castle. THE END Edinburgh Castle H hi a;slkdjfa;sldkjfa;lsdkfja;sdlkfja;sdlkfja;sdlkfjaa;lksdjfa;lskdjfalkdsjfas;slkdjfa;lkdjfla;kjf;lkjf;alksd