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Transcript of Kashmir Conflict
The Kashmir conflict first began in 1948 with the independence of India and Pakistan from Great Britain. The conflict still occurs today, but is very small.
Since the conflict has began, Pakistan and India has fought 3 large wars, and several smaller wars.
In the past 10 years alone, over 70,000 Pakistani's have died because of the conflict and around 43,000 Indians have died. China was also involved in this conflict. (Kashmir Affairs Council) The Conflict Begins In 1947, Great Britain had split up the Indian subcontinent into two countries:Pakistan and India. Pakistan was populated with a majority of Muslims and India was populated with a majority of Hindu's. This had created a large conflict since many natives were
relocated to new countries (over 15 million).
Maharaja Hari Singh had wanted Kashmir to remain independent, but merged with India in exchange for military support and the promise of a referendum on independence, which has never been held. As a result of the unresolved dispute, India and Pakistan went to war over Kashmir in 1947-48. At the time, Kashmir was a kingdom that was led by a monarch Over 3,000 people died in the war, not including civilians. The result of the war was a stalemate. Both armies could not progress further into the land of the other. In result, at the end of the war, Kashmir was split in two. About 63% was owned by India and 37% owned by Pakistan. The Line of Control was established by the United Nations in 1948 in order to split the Kashmir state. The Conflict Continues The extreme hatred and dispute over Kashmir continued after the 1940's. As both countries became more powerful, the threat of war became more common. In 1962, Chinese forces invaded the Aksai Chin portion of Kashmir in the north that was claimed by India. Both India and China sprung into war. This was called the Sino-Indian war. The war resulted in Chinese victory and China claimed a small portion of Kashmir. This war occured around the same time as the Cuban Missile Crises Tensions rose between India and Pakistan until 1965, when Pakistan and India entered another war. The 2nd largest war between the two, both sides used heavy artillery, massive use of tanks, and aircraft. Over 6,000 people had died in this war The United Nations arranged a ceasefire for the conflict in 1965. Rising tensions yet again, aswell as a revolution in East Pakistan again the West Pakistani's sparked another Indo-Pakistani war in 1971. While much of the battle did not take place in Kashmir, some of it did. The war liberated 0Eastern Pakistan into present day Bangladesh and weakened Pakistani forces. In 1989, alleged Afgan Mujahideen insurjents had entered Indian occupied Kashmir following the Soviet-Afgan war. This had angered India and led to conflicts that will rise 10 years later. Around this time aswell, India and Pakistan both claimed to have possesion of nuclear weapons. This made the conflict more tight and the United Nations had feared the possibility of a nuclear war. Kargil to Present As mentioned earlier, India and Pakistan had established a Line of Control. Following the war in 1965, both countries agreed to not cross the Line of Control at any times. This was also recognized by the United Nations. However, during the winter of 1999, Pakistan had trained many of its military men to disguise as mujahideen forces. The disguised troops crossed the Line of Control in February 1999. They entered the Kashmirian town of Kargil, which was owned by India. India noticed these infiltrators, and both clashed two days after the infiltration. The Indians eventually discovered the infiltrators to be Pakistan- trained soldiers. This dissapointed the United Nations and many countries began to frown upon the decision. Still today, many Pakistani's deny that the infiltrators were Pakistan-trained soldiers. Even today, the conflict still exists. Riots ocasionally occur between the two countries and random outbreaks of violence and revolt is common inside of the state of Kashmir. Just two months ago, seperatist groups attacked hotels in the capital of Indian-Occupied Kashmir Many Indians blamed the Mumbai attacks in 2008 on the Pakistani's, a sign of hatred still today.