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Year 11 Materials and Material Properties

Discussing common materials, and some lesson common, which could be used in production and for GCSE jobs.

Simon Renison

on 10 November 2011

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Transcript of Year 11 Materials and Material Properties

Material and
Material Properties Metals Woods Polymers (Plastics) Composites Plastics are made from long-chain molecules of hydrocarbons. All polymers have different properties.

Polymers are split into 2 main types:

Thermoplastics - These materials can be repeatedly
reheated and remoulded.

Thermosets (or Thermosetting plastics) - these undergo a chemical change resulting in them becoming permanently rigid, so they can't be reheated and re-shaped. Thermoplastics

ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)



PP (Polypropylene)

HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)

PS (Polystyrene)

LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

PVC (Polyvinyl)

PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) Thermoplastics

ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)



PP (Polypropylene)

HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)

PS (Polystyrene)

LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

PVC (Polyvinyl) lkjhf lkh
Thermosetting plastics:

Epoxy Resin

Melamine Formaldehyde

Polyester Resins

Urea Formaldehyde ABS :

High impact strength

Good toughness with good strength

Scratch Resistant

Lightweight and Durable High End Mobile Phones High End Toys Safety Helmets Nylon

Hard and Tough

Resistant to wear, with
a low coefficient of friction. Nylon Bearings Nylon Gears Clothing Acrylic:

Food Safe,

Tough, Hard and Durable

Easily Machined. Acrylic Computer Parts Acrylic Illuminated Signs Acrylic car light covers PP


Food Safe

Good Impact Resistance
even at low temperatures

Good chemical resistnace. PP Food Containers. PP String and Rope HIPS

Good Impact Resistance

Good Strength and Stiffness

Lightweight HIPs Toys HIPs refrigerator lining Polystyrene



Low impact Strength Packaging Disposable cups and plates LDPE:


Low stiffness and rigidity

Good Chemical Resistance Plastic Bottles Plastic Bags HDPE:

High Density, good stiffness

Good Chemical Resistance

HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number "2" as its recycling symbol.

HDPE is also somewhat harder and more opaque than LDPE and it can withstand rather higher temperatures (120° Celsius for short periods, 110° Celsius continuously).

Easily machined and can be used in many processes, but particularily well in blow moulding. Crates Buckets PVC

Good chemical resistance, good resistance to weathering

Rigid, hard and tough, but lightweight

It can be shaped and formed through injection moulding.

Can be purchased as a hard material or alternatively a flexible form. It can be welded or bonded with an adhesive PVC flexible hose PVC piping PVC window frames Epoxy Resin

High strength when reinforced
with fibres (GRP)

Good chemical and resistant wear. Adhesives.

Surface coating for GRP Melamine Formaldehyde:

Rigid with good strength

Hard and scratch resistant.

Can be coloured Melamine Dinnerwear Melamine worktops Polyester resin

Rigid and brittle

Good heat and chemical resistance Polyester resin Boat hulls. Used with GRP. Urea Formaldehyde

Rigid, hard and good strength.

Brittle and heat resistant.

Good electrical insulator. Electrical fittings and adhesives What I hope you learn from today:

Learn about different materials,
their benefits and why they would
be used on certain products.

Learn how you could use these materials
on products you design. There are 3 main types of woods;
Hardwoods, Softwoods and then Manufactured boards.

Hardwoods come from deciduous trees, whereas Softwoods come from evergreen's. Hardwoods:






Mahogany Softwoods:

Scots pine


Western Red Cedar Manufactured boards:




Strong, durable and resistant to
decay and preservatives.


Difficult to work with hand tools.
Can be steam bend easily.

Beautiful open grain.

Steel fittings such as hinges will stain oak so it is important to use brass ones. Ash:

Open grained pale asethetics.

Easy to work with.

Moderately expensive Uses: Tool Handles, Ladders, Veneers. Uses: High class furniture,
boats, beams in buildings Beech:

Straight-grained hardwood with fine texture.

Hard, but easy to work with.

Light in colour. Uses: Furniture, toys, tool handles. Walnut:

Strong, but heavy.

Very fine hardwood.

Holds stains well. Uses: Furniture, doors, flooring Teak:

Strong and durable

Highly resistant to mositure.

Very rare and expensive. Uses: Outdoor Furniture,
oat building, lab furniture Scots Pine:

Straight grained, but many knots.

Fairly strong and easy to work with.


Course surface Uses: Readily available for DIY,
used most often in construction. Spruce (Whitewood)

Creamy white softwood.

Small knots

Not very durable

Inexpensive Uses: indoor work and furniture. Mostly
used in kitchens and bedrooms. Western Red Cedar:

Light in weight

Knot free

Easy to work with.

Weak and expensive Uses: Outdoor cladding, fences. Plywood:

Has a high resistance to cracking, shrinkage, and twisting/warping.

High degree of strength.

Made from layers of veneer glue together at 90 degrees. Outer layer is of higher quality than inner layers, and usually thinner.

Inexpensive, workable and available from local sources. Uses: Construction,
Furniture Chipboard:

Made from chips of wood
glued together.

Usually veneered.

Very cheap. Uses: Kitchen worktops,
Shelving and general DIY. MDF:

Smooth even surface. Easily machined.

Water and fire resistant in certain forms.

Can be laminated with Oak, Beech, Ash laminates to give the outside of the wood an asethetically pleasing finish. Uses: Furniture and often veneered There are 3 types of metals; ferrous (with iron), non ferrous (without iron) and then alloys (combination of metals.) Ferrous:

Cast Iron

Mild Steel

Stainless Steel

High Speed Steel Non-Ferrous:




Zinc Alloys:



Duralumin Cast Iron

Produced directly from its ore
through the blast furnace.

Soft and Ductile.

Very strong in compression,
but brittle. Uses: Metalwork vices, brake discs and drums, manhole covers Mild Steel:

Mostly iron mixed with
a very small amount of

Ductile and malleable.

Rusts easily. Uses: Nuts, bolts, car bodies, gates, girders. Stainless Steel:

Very resistant to corrosion and

A ferrous alloy as it is a mixture
of chromium, nickel and

Uses: Sinks, cutlery,
surgical instruments.
High Speed Steel:

Very hard and durable

Brittle, but resistant to wear.

Alloy - tungsten, chromium and vanadium. Uses: Drill bits, lathe tools, cutters
used where high speeds and high
temperatures are created. Aluminium:

Most abundant metal on

Light weight

Electrical conductor. Uses: Cooking foil, saucepans,
cars, ladders. Copper:

Electrical conductor


Ductile and Malleable. Uses: Plumbing and electrical
components, roofs which then turn
a greenish colour. Lead:

Heavy-duty metal.

Soft and malleable.

High resistance to corrosion
from mositure and acids. Uses: Car battery cells, weather
proofing for buildings Zinc:

Used as a coating on steels.

Can be die-cast.

Weak metal.

Extremely resistant to corrosion
and mositure. Uses: galvanising steel,
buckets, die cast to produce
high detail products. Brass:

A mixture of Copper and Zinc

Often machined and then
chromium plated.

Uses: Decorative metal work,
candlesticks, cast valves.

A mixture of copper
and tin.

Hard and Brittle.

Uses: Statues, Coins
and bearings.

Aluminium alloy which is
almost as strong as steel, but 30%

Copper, manganese and magnesium

Uses: Aircraft bodies, some cars
Composites are produced by mixing together two or more different materials. Composites:


Carbon Fibre


Glass Reinforced Plastic,
spun to produce a fibre that
is coated to aid bonding to the

Exceptionally strong.

Easy to mould. Uses: Canoes, Car parts Carbon Fibre:

Very strong

Very light weight

Very expensive. Uses: Car bodies, expensive sports
equipment, formula one cars. Kevlar:

Mixture of aromatic and aramid

Weight for weight Kevlar is 5
times stronger than steel and
about half the density of fibreglass.

High strength, high toughness,
flame resistant Uses: body protection (bullet proof vests)
sports equipment, sails for windsurfing. Mahogany:

Excellent shaping, very good planing, fair steam bending.

Small dimensional changes when subjected humidity

Fairly strong and durable

Some interlocking grain

It is light brown in colour and more difficult to use compared to pine Common Applications: Furniture, cabinet work, boat building, joinery Flexiply:

Very flexible and is designed for making curved parts. A bend radius as little as 25mm makes this product ideal for tight radius work.

can be bonded together in its curved form to produce any thickness as required.

standard thicknesses available are 3mm, 5mm, 8mm and 16mm.

No special equipment is required to bend, fabricate or laminate. Uses: used extensively in furniture and shopfitting, wherever curves are desirable, thus demanding a panel that is extremely flexible Aeroply:

Aeroply is made from three thin layers of birch and is only one mm thick when bonded together.

This ply was designed to be used on aeroplane wings as it can be curved so effectively.

It is very light, but also strong, especially when laminated together with a number of sheets. Uses: Furniture where bends are required. Aeroplanes parts.
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