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Ethos Pathos Logos

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Jennifer Bailey

on 31 August 2011

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Transcript of Ethos Pathos Logos

The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, into three categories: Modes of Persuasion Ethos Logos Logical: means persuading by
the use of reasoning. Emotional: means persuading by
appealing to the reader's emotions or values. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven. Credibility: (ethical appeal) based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation and/or expertise of the author. Clear claims/statement
Effective supporting evidence Sympathy
Fear
Anger
Passion got milk?

Recent studies suggest that including 24 ounces of milk a day in a reduced calorie diet may help you burn more fat and lose more weight than cutting calories alone. American Heart Association Mother Nurture: My leading role? Being a mom. So I drink milk. It's naturally nutrient rich like no other beverage. Besides, calcium, milk is packed with protein and 8 vitamins to help build strong families. Just one more thing to cherish. 1.5 million children die every year from drinking polluted water Unicef The goal of an argument is to persuade one that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's argument. Pathos Testimonial: using words of an expert or famous person to persuade. Bandwagon: persuade people to do something by letting them know others are all doing it. ethos pathos ethos http://www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/webclass/web/project1/group4/commercial.html How can we evaluate rhetoric? Who is the speaker/writer? Who is the audience?
What credibility has speaker/writer established?
What emotions or values are being appealed to?
What kind of claim is being made?
What evidence/reasons are relevant to support the claim?
What assumptions – on both sides - may be hidden? Evaluating ethos: Who is the speaker/writer?
What position does he/she have?
What kind of authority does he/she have?
Is it academic, political, medical, religious, etc?
Is he/she trustworthy or is there a credibility gap?
Is the language legitimate or manipulative?
POV? Inclusive, demeaning, or not involved? Evaluating Pathos What kind of emotional appeal is being used?
Which emotions are being stirred?
Nostalgia, hate, envy, love, prejudice, or fear?
What values are assumed or appealed to?
Is the appeal legitimate or manipulative?
Emotional appeals are powerful. Why?
Because we act only when emotions are stirred Evaluating Logos: Is the claim a well-formed, precise idea?
Can the idea be expressed in a coherent sentence?
Answer a question relevant to the community?
Justified or supported by reasons & evidence?
Are these reasons acceptable to the community?
Are the hidden assumptions also acceptable? Failures in logos: Common fallacies in using logic:
Begging the Question – Assuming your conclusion.
Complex Question – “Have you stopped beating your wife yet?”
Hasty Generalization – Inadequate evidence.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc – After this, because of this.
Event C happened immediately prior to event E. Therefore, C caused E.
Stacking the deck – Ignoring counter-evidence.
Non sequitur – The claim does not follow the evidence.
False dilemma – Only extreme options – either A or B. Failures in ethos and pathos: Ad hominem – personal attack not issues—argument against the person.
Guilt by association – stereotyping group.
Poisoning the well – biased argument.
False authority – no genuine credibility.
Ad populum – bandwagon – appeal to the people, etc.
Threat/Reward – using bribery to persuade.
Red Herring – raising irrelevant, emotional issues. Statistical arguments Statistical arguments common in science etc.
But statistics can be misused & prove deceptive.
What kind of average – mean, median, mode?
How much deviation or scatter in results?
Conscious or unconscious bias in evidence?
Is there information missing from evidence?
What conclusions can legitimately be drawn? Summary and sources: Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.
Rhetoric uses the appeals of logos, ethos, & pathos.
Logos involves a claim, reasons, & assumptions.
We should evaluate logos, ethos, & pathos.
We need to recognize failures in reasoning – fallacies.
Gary L. Hatch. Arguing in Communities. 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Chapters 2-4.
X. J. Kennedy et. Al. The Bedford Guide for College Writers 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2002.
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