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The Immune System

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ALIA SANGER

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of The Immune System

A Presentation by Kaia Depelteau and Alia Sanger The Immune System Introduction How Your Body's Immune System Functions Body Parts in the Immune System The Immune system is made up of various components such as cells and organs and is your body's form of defense. The immune system works to fight unwanted germs and bacteria and protect your body against illnesses and virus's. Many people hardly realize that they're immune system is their at all, because it does such a good job. However, their are certain diseases which are caused by problems in the immune system, which can be fatal. Recovery after sickness
If a cut or wound heals without an infection
You don’t catch a disease multiple times
When cuts or wounds are surrounded by swelling and soreness
As you age your immune system becomes stronger
The immune system comes usually into action when you have a disease (ex. the flu)
The different parts of your immune system work together to ward off germs
However, after this occurs, your immune system often remembers how to fight the germ if it ever returns. The immune system doesn't just stick to one part of your body- many of your organs work together to protect you! 8-6 Definition: The protection of the body from a disease caused by an infectious agent such as a bacterium or virus. Immunity may be natural (that is, inherited) or acquired. Definition: Immunity, the protection of the body from a disease caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacterium or virus. Immunity may be natural (that is, inherited) or acquired.” Elements of a Healthy Immune System The Spleen The Lymphatic System Lymph: A clear fluid, similar to blood plasma (the clear liquid in blood)
Carries only white blood cells
Lymph flows through the body, picking up fluid around cells along the way. It transports this fluid to the large veins near the heart.
Also transports white blood cells to places in which they are needed.
Lymph is also able to collect bacteria and viruses
It then passes them on to the lymph nodes, where they are filtered and destroyed. Lymph Nodes Lymph nodes are commonly called “glands,” and they often determine whether or not you have an infection.
Your doctor will check your neck and underarms for swollen glands. Epidermis (Skin) The first line of defense in your immune system
The epidermis has special cells which warn your body about germs that you come into contact with
The glands in your skin are able to kill some bacterias
This enables you to only become sick or get an infection if your skin is broken, or damaged. Bone Marrow The Thymus Other Body Parts White Blood Cells There are red blood cells and white blood cells found in blood. White cells work together to eliminate bacteria, and viruses. They are produced in bone marrow. Many different white blood cells exist, and are found in your body.
Neutrophils: Cells which travel the body and seek foreign materials.
Macrophages: Contribute to keeping different organs of the body clean. They also travel the body and cleans up damaged white cells.
Lymphocytes: Prevent bacterial and viral infections.
B Cells: Produce antibodies which attach themselves to germs, so the other cells can recognise that the bacteria must be destroyed. These are interesting, because each cell looks out for a specific germ.
T Cells: Search for cells which are concealing germs, or cells that are not healthy (which are capable of developing into a cancer.). T Cells then kill the germs or cells which they find. Problematic Immune Systems (allergies, cancers, insulin dependent diabetes, etc) Leukemia: A cancer of the blood, or bone marrow. This is related to the immune system because it involves an increase of the white blood cells, complications with the lymphatic system, and causes the immune system to stop functioning. Therefore, one will be exposed to a number of diseases.
Allergies: A very common case, in which the immune system acts to something that is not actually a threat.
Transplants: When skin or organ tissue is transferred from one individual to another, your immune system will try to attack the foreign material. How to maintain a healthy immune system Eating a healthy diet (Herbs and antioxidants are especially important for boosting your immune system)
Sleeping well
Washing your hands
Handle, prepare, and consume food with care.

Active Immunizations
A microbe or part of a microbe is injected so it comes in contact with the immune system. This forces the immune system to fight it off so in case of later contact with x disease the immune system will know how to defend itself
If a full microbe is used the microbe is pre-treated and is not dangerous
Passive Immunization
When pre-synthesized parts of the immune system are injected into someones body
Allows the person to not have to produce the elements needed to fight off the disease
Less common than active immunizations
Antibodies are usually used
The immunization does not last long because the antibodies are naturally broken down
One example of a Passive immunization is the tetanus shot Immunizations Platelets Conclusion Pro's Cons The Pro's And Cons of Immunizations Often include side affects, which can even include paralysis, seizures, anaphylactic shock, or death.
Many debate that the immune system should learn how to fight diseases on its own- without vaccinations
Some religious and philosophical views do not support vaccination An organ located just under your diaphragm Stores lymphocytes and red blood cells
Lymph is filtered through it 90-99% of the time, vaccinations are successful
Protect your body from disease
Also protect other individuals by not infecting them with the disease you may (if not for a vaccine) have
Many of the con's to vaccinations are untrue. ex. It has been proven that autism is in no way caused by vaccinations Makes certain white blood cells (macrophages and lymphocytes) There are two types of bone marrow
Yellow Bone marrow stores mainly fat cells
Red bone marrow plays a key function in the Lymphatic system
It produces red and white blood cells and platelets
The blood cells, platelets and B-Lymphocytes stay in red bone marrow until they are mature enough to move into the blood stream
As you get older more bone marrow turns yellow
Almost 50% of adult bone marrow is yellow
Red bone marrow is mainly found in flat bones The mucous membranes which line your mouth, bowel, throat, and lungs block any bad germs
The mucous that is created in your nose, throat, and lungs trap dust, viruses, and bacteria.
The saliva found in your mouth, and the tears in your eyes, contain unique enzymes which are able to break down the cells walls of several bacterias and viruses.
The acid in your stomach is also capable of killing a large portion of germs. Help fight off diseases and infections
Eliminate Bacteria and viruses
Produced in bone marrow
Many different white blood cells exist, and are found in your body Neutrophils The most common type of granulocyte. Nuetrophils respond to the chemicals let off by injured cells then move towards the sight of inflammation. They also make up 55% of white blood cells in the body Macrophages Contribute to keeping different organs of the body clean. They also travel the body and cleans up damaged white cells. A type of blood cell
Prevents bleeding when you get a cut by forming a clot or scab
Also prevent blood from leaking out of your cappilaries Prevent bacterial and viral infections. Granulocytes An organ specific to the immune system
Certain immature Lymphocytes migrate to the thymus
There they become T-lymphocytes (or T-cells)
Several different types of T-cells such as helper, fighter and suppressor cells.
The thymus changes size over a lifetime.
This process is known as "Organ Involution" The Ancient greeks knew about the thymus. Its name comes from the greek word "thumos" which means anger, or heart, soul, desire, life. Several diagrams explaining the growth of the thymus Lymphocytes B Cells: Produce antibodies which attach themselves to germs, so the other cells can recognise that the bacteria must be destroyed. These are interesting, because each cell looks out for a specific germ.
T Cells: Search for cells which are concealing germs, or cells that are not healthy (which are capable of developing into a cancer.). T Cells then kill the germs or cells which they find. Cells which travel the body and seek foreign materials. There are three main types of Granulocytes and each have a different purpose. We personally believe that the pro's of immunizations and vaccinations outweigh the con's, but there are many people who do not believe that which is fine. Eosinophils Make up around 5% of white blood cells in the human body. The respond to allergies and migrate towards the chemicals created by parasites as the parasites enter the body Basophils Make up less then 0.5% of white blood cells. Basophils respond to invading pathogens but are also involved with allergic reactions. The Immune system is critical in the defense of the human body and we would not be able to operate efficiently without it. Below are sites which we used as research for this Prezi. Thanks for watching! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocyte
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/immune.html
http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids.aspx?p=335&np=152&id=2402
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination
http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Bone-Marrow.aspx
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