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Marie Curie- Prezi by Maurie Zhang
Transcript of Marie Curie- Prezi by Maurie Zhang
Background Information on Marie Curie
Nov 7,1867 -Marya Sklodowska is born in Warsaw, Poland
1878- Marie's mother dies of TB (tuberculosis)
1883- Graduates at the top of her high school class
1885-1889-Works as a governess
1891-Begins her studies at the Sorbonne University in Paris, France
1893-Earns master degree in Physics, graduates at top of her class
The Sklodowski Children
dies of Typhus in 1874
*Marie and her two daughters
-Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays while investigating cathode rays
-Discovers that he can take pictures of the bones in living people
Meets Pierre Curie while working on an experiment for her degree
Gets her master's in mathematics, scoring second in her class
Marries Pierre Curie
Stays in France
Never goes back to live in Poland
Setting the Stage
Setting the Stage
-Antoine-Henri Becquerel places a copper cross onto a photographic plate with uranium salts and prepares to expose them to sunlight
-Postpones exposure due to gray skies
-Opens drawer and discovers that the image has been transferred without light
- Calls them Becquerel rays
-Believed that his rays may have a longer life span than X-rays
After these two discoveries, few scientists were interested in doing anymore research having to do with X-Rays or Becquerel Rays
-Marie works on her doctoral thesis
-Does more research on Becquerel rays
Marie uses Pierre's electrometer to measure electrical activity given off by rays from different substances
Found that pure uranium gave of the strongest rays
One day she tested pitchblende
Found that it gave off even stronger rays than pure uranium
Also tested to see if energy differed when the substance was in a different state or exposed to heat
None of the conditions changed the activity of samples
Marie wrote a scientific paper about her research
Made two revolutionary observations
Radioactivity- a term she created, could be measured and be used to discover new elements
Radioactivity was an atomic property, therefore the atom could not be the smallest particle of matter as many scientists believed
Marie Curie's Contributions to Science
Discovering Radium and Polonium
Marie was finding that certain ores containing uranium or thorium had more radioactivity than pure uranium or thorium.
She theorized that these ores included other undiscovered radioactive elements.
-The couple worked together to separate the chemicals in pitchblende
-First pitchblende was ground into a powder, then boiled it in an acid
-Afterward they let the solution cool, allowing it to form into crystals
-The lighter chemicals crystallized first, so they separated elements according to their tendencies to form crystals at different temps.
-Marie called the process, "fractionation"
-The process was extremely time consuming, but eventually they found two new elements Polonium and Radium
Two New Elements
There was no doubt that Radium and Polonium actually existed but there was not enough concrete evidence
Also the substance Marie called Radium still had too much Barium to be considered its own element
The Curies continued to use their fractionation technique, but on a much larger scale, using tons of pitchblende
Finally they had produced a specimen(Radium) that had too little barium to influence its atomic weight
Marie correctly placed it on the Periodic Table as #88
-Polonium was discovered to be 400 times as radioactive as uranium alone
-One gram of radium was discovered to be 10 million times more radioactive than uranium
The Curies are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering radioactivity and the Davy medal of the Royal Society
The Nobel Prize was shared with Becquerel
Did you know......
....that the official nomination for the 1903 Nobel Prize winners for physics only listed Becquerel and Pierre but left out Marie?
Marie wins her second Nobel Prize
This time in Chemistry, for her discovery of Radium and Polonium
Pierre probably would have been included in the nomination if he was still alive
Did you know.....
....that Marie Curie was the first person to win/share two Nobel Prizes?
She was also the first to win two Nobel Prizes in two different science fields.
Research on Radioactivity
Marie invents a mobile X-ray unit to help wounded soldiers on the front during WW1
Daughter Irene (left) learned how to use the equipment and went on to train scores of X-ray technicians during the war
Marie Curie dies on July 4, 1934, from complications due to overexposure to radiation [leukemia] throughout her scientific career
-This is a photo of the "laboratory" provided to the Curies by the University of Sorbonne for their research on Radium and Polonium
-Followed in her mother's footsteps
-later shared a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie
At my urgent request the Curie laboratory, in which radium was discovered a short time ago, was shown to me. The Curies themselves were away traveling. It [the lab] was a cross between a stable and a potato-cellar, and, if I had not seen the worktable with the chemical apparatus, I would have thought it a practical joke.
-Wilhelm Ostwald, on seeing the Curies' "laboratory"
Note to Viewers
Before Radium was deemed dangerous for one's health, it was used in all sorts of consumer products, from medicine to makeup.
Any thoughts or questions?
Feel free to comment in the comment section.
Thank you for watching this Prezi
Happy Learning!! :)
A Pioneer in the Study of Radioactivity
Pierre and Marie's
The Curie Daughters
*Pic above of Eve and Irene with Marie, during Marie's world tour
*Photo above was taken shortly after Pierre's death
-became a pianist
-later wrote a biography on her mother
Marie and Pierre Curie are shown in their laboratory in 1898.
German chemist who won the 1909 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria, and chemical reaction velocities