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Toni Schisler

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Pregnancy

Third Trimester
At this stage the amount of amniotic fluid has reached it's limit. So now that the placenta is done growing, the amount of amniotic fluid will slowly decrease towards the end of pregnancy. The baby is consuming and recycling about half a liter of the amniotic fluid each day that helps provide nutrients such as protein to encourage good development. Waste is stored in the baby's colon and is excreted after birth. The baby relies completely on the mother to protect them from infections/diseases. If the mother has an immunity to certain illnesses, the baby will carry the antibodies to these conditions.
- All nerve cells that make up the outer surface of the brain are in place. Brain is also forming creases and folds seen in mature brains. Baby is spending more time asleep and is developing their own sleep/awake patterns that may carry into after birth. Baby can hear loud noises and knows when mother is moving or still.
Physical Changes in Pregnancy
In the first trimester, women experiences few changes in the body. Usually in the second trimester pregnant women has mostly peaceful a time with an exception weight gain and euphoria. The third trimester is the most difficult due to the fetal dependence on the mother's functions since she has to breath, digest, excrete, and circulate blood for herself and the fetus.
Second Trimester Emotional Changes
Finding energetic
Feel more like themselves
Not as tired
increased dependance
mixed emotions
Body image and sexuality
Some types of depression
Trouble concentrating
Excitement about babie's movement
Second Trimester
The embryo is now a fetus. The bag of amniotic fluid that the fetus lives in (amniotic sac) helps to keep them safe and free from infection. As pregnancy continues the amount of fluid will grow to allow more room to move around. The fetus is dependent on the placenta for all nourishment. The umbilical cord connects the baby to the placenta. The baby is now getting bigger than the placenta. The fetus also begins to urinate but only in small amounts.
-The brain is continuing to develop. The Central Nervous System has all it's basic components. The brain is picking up electrical signals from the body. Sensations such as pressure and temperature. Also the baby can hear and can adapt and remember certain sounds such as the mother.

- The baby's skin and hair begin to develop and cover the body. At first the skin will be transparent but by the end of this trimester the skin will be more resilient and pink and brown fat will cover the baby's neck, chest and back to be used after birth to produce heat and energy. Eyebrows and lashes are also forming.
Stages of fetal development
First Trimester
After fertilization, the cells divide. They will continue to divide repeatedly. A cluster of cells is formed called a blastocyst that attaches to the lining of the uterus. After a few days it becomes implanted and begins to draw nourishment from the endometrium(uterine lining). About 2 weeks after fertilization the blastocyst becomes an embryo which develops within the amniotic sac. The amniotic sac, placenta and umbilical cord are all formed from the outermost shell of cells. This begins the embryo development stage.
- During this stage at about 4 weeks the yolk sac is forming. This nourishes the embryo until the placenta starts to function. At about 5 weeks of pregnancy most of the organs and external body structures begin to form. The embryo then elongates forming a human shape and the brain and spinal cord are developing along with the heart and major blood vessels. The lungs and digestive system are starting to develop. Kidneys begin to develop along with sex organs.
Pregnancy & Child Birth
by: April Straub, Jowell Gault,Toni Schisler, Brianna
Important Components of Good Prenatal Care
Regular Checkups
Physical & Emotional Changes of Pregnancy
Child Labor
First Stage
Second Stage
Third Stage
Different Types of Delivery's
Natural Birth
Cesarean Section (C-Section)
Water Birth
First Trimester Physical changes
First Trimester Emotional changes
Second Trimester Physical changes

Second Trimester (continued)

- Kidneys are starting to function. The baby's heartbeat may be heard on ultrasound. The baby will practice breathing movements that help enable the lungs to grow. Reproductive organs are continuing to develop and between 14-20 weeks the sex of the baby may be identified. For girls, immature eggs are already forming in the ovaries. The lungs are the last organs to be fully functional.
- Bones now contain bone marrow capable of producing blood cells. The cartilage skeleton is gradually being replaced by hard bone.
- The fetus begins to move it's limbs. Facial muscles are developing allowing the baby to make faces. (frowns, smiles and even sticking out their tongue!) At the beginning the mother may have felt light flutters in the belly but by the end of this trimester the baby will be kicking and changing positions constantly.
Third Trimester (continued)
In the 6th week Nausea (Morning Sickness)begins and ends in the 12th week
Breast tenderness
increased urination
sleepiness and fatigue
uterus softens and turns purple
food aversions or cravings
Heartburn and constipation
a confliction between excitement and emotional stress for the babies arrival.
adjustment to motherhood
worries about balancing family and career
mood swings
weepiness (crying and sadness)
larger breasts
Growing belly (gain 3 to 4 pounds (about 1.4 to 1.8 kilograms a month until delivery)
Braxton hits contractions (uterus begins to contract for the preparation for labor)
Skin and Hormonal changes
Stretch marks
Nasal and gum problems
Leg cramps
Vaginal Discharge
Increases the risk of bladder and kidney infections
steady weight gain of about one-half to one pound per week
The first stage last about 13 hours, all depending if it is your first delivery.
The first stage begins with dilation and effacement.
Contractions last about 30 seconds and occur every 15-20 minutes.
During this stage small amount bleeding is normal
The last part is transition, where strong and frequent contractions occur every 1-3 seconds and last 60-90 seconds.
This stage begins with complete cervix dilation and ends with delivery
The baby head may turn, so it can exit smoothly
When the top of the baby head appears this is called
The Midwife/ Doctor sucks the mucus out of the nose and mouth, and makes sure the umbilical cord is not around the baby's neck
When the baby is officially born, it will appear wet and a cheesy substance.
Baby head may appear weird due to soft pates but will mold in about 24 hours.
After the baby is born, the mother will continue to contract until placenta is expelled.
The entire placenta must be gone or it will cause infection or bleeding
Breast feeding soon after delivery helps control uterine bleeding.
The baby's physical condition is tested directly after birth.
They also test for 29 specific disorders.
A C-section is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies.

A natural, unmedicated approach to labor and birth will suit you best if you want to remain in control of your body as much as possible, and be an active participant throughout labor.

Thank you for your time! Now enjoy!

- More fat and muscle is rounding out the baby's body. Skin is more pink and less transparent. As the baby grows, hair and skin can shed producing more afterwards. At the end of this trimester hair will be covering the baby's body. It will be short, soft and non pigmented. Some have hair on the head while others may not.

- Eyelids are fully open now and baby can respond to bright light and may blink. Lungs are structurally complete but are not yet functional. Complex developments in the lungs are taking place to enable baby to breathe unaided once born. Ears are fully formed. Breathing is now rhythmical. Baby's stomach will be fully developed after birth, but with low acid levels the baby can only be fed milk for the first few months since the stomach won't reach adult levels until about 3/4 months.
- Bones will reach their full pre-birth growth transforming from soft cartilage to hard bone. As the baby grows older bones will continuously develop. Calcium from the mother's diet is essential in the baby's bone development.
- Hand coordination is improving. As well as a strong grasp reflex. Now when the baby moves an imprint of a foot may be apparent if they kick. Baby is practicing suckling movements to know how to feed when born.
First Trimester (continued)
Other Developments
-Facial features are becoming recognizable at week 6. The eyes are recognized first and will continue to develop throughout pregnancy. The mouth is forming "milk buds" and a separate set will develop permanent teeth. Limbs are beginning to form (arms first) as well as fingers and toes. Bones are beginning to develop and will cause the embryo to be less curled up. At the end of this trimester the yolk sac is not needed anymore and the placenta takes over all nourishment (blood, oxygen and essential nutrients) until the end of pregnancy. At this time the embryo is now considered a fetus.
ask families medical history
give physical
blood test
see if baby's blood and mother is compatible
not= rH-immue globulin-destroys rH postive(cells that prevent mother from creating antibodies
baby gets all nutrition from mother
low iron
baby get's most of the iron
mom= may get iron deficient
250-500 extra calories per day
ask doctor
High vitamin/ mineral supplements
boost levels of nutrition
helps fetal development
helps mother not become deficient
do not take supplements without doctor's order
Nutrition Continue
Vitamin B + D = most important
Not enough D
Low-weight baby
health problems
heart disease
folic acid
not enough=
neural tube defeacts
spina bifida
foodborne pathogens= dangerous
always wash food before
never eat under cooked or ready-to-eat meat
always stay hydrated
eat a balance diet
positive outlook
feel confident
body deal with change
shortens birth+ recovery time
overall anxiety
leg cramps
swollen feet
varicose veins
back pain
Things to Avoid or use Caution
don't smoke, drink, do drugs, or drink caffeine
be careful
cleaning supplies
dying hair
rides at an amusement park
pet (infections)
work environment
Check with doctor if you have
High blood pressure
Be Prepared
Take birthing classes
Set up baby stuff
Make hospital arrangements
Make sure everything is ready
is a complex process that involves fertilization. The moment a male's sperm meets a female's egg (ovum).
Every month during a woman's fertile years, the body is preparing itself for conception and pregnancy. In one of her ovaries, an egg matures and is released from it's follicle. The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized it lasts about 24 hours then disintegrates and the remains are expelled from the body during the menstrual cycle.
- Sperm cells are produced in the man's testes and ejaculated from his penis into the woman's vagina during sexual intercourse. Of the millions of sperm that reach the egg, only one will penetrate it's hard outer layer. As sperm approach the egg, they release enzymes that soften this outer layer. The first sperm cell that finds a soft enough spot can swim into the egg cell. It will then merge with the nucleus of the egg and fertilization occurs.
Conception (continued)
The egg (ovum) carries the hereditary characteristics of the mother and ancestors and the sperm carries characteristics of the father and his ancestors. Each parent cell contains 23 chromosomes.
- In most cases one sperm and one egg meet but in the rare case that two or more eggs are released from the ovaries and are fertilized, twins develop. The development of two or more fetuses in the same pregnancy is called
multiple gestation
and leads to
multiple births
. Twins that are developed from a
fertilized egg are called
fraternal twins
. Twins that develop from the division of a
fertilized egg into two cells are called
identical twins
. They will develop separately but share the same genetic material.
About 2 million American couples have difficulty conceiving. Infertility is the inability to conceive after trying for a year or more. In problems conceiving, women aren't the only ones having trouble. Men rank at about 26% where as women were 50%. And in 35% of infertile couples, both partners have problems.
Female Infertility
- Usually caused by tubal blockage or a failure to ovulate. Other causes may be anatomical abnormalities, benign growths in the uterus, thyroid disease and others. Blocked fallopian tubes are the most common result of
pelvic inflammatory disease
which is a serious complication of several sexually transmitted diseases. Tubal blockage may also be caused by prior surgery or by
. Age can also be a factor. At around age 30 a woman's fertility naturally begins to decline. Exposure to toxic chemicals such as radiation and cigarette smoke can also cause infertility.
Male Infertility
- Leading causes of male infertility can be divided into four main categories:

Hypothalamic Pituitary Disease, Testicular Disease, Disorders of Sperm Transport or Post Testicular Disorders and Unexplained
Treatment of Infertility
Most cases can be treated with conventional medical therapies. Surgery can repair oviducts, remove endometriosis, and correct anatomical problems in men and women.
If these methods don't work then couples can turn to
assisted reproductive technology(ART) techniques.
Most treatments are expensive and emotionally draining, and success is hard to pinpoint. Some couples may stop trying whereas others may choose adoption.
Artificial(Intrauterine) Insemination
- Male infertility can be overcome by collecting and concentrating the man's sperm and introducing by syringe into a woman's uterus or vagina. To increase success the female is given fertility drugs that induce ovulation. The success rate is about 5-20%.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
- The harvested eggs are mixed with sperm in a lab(petri) dish. If eggs are successfully fertilized then one or more embryos are inserted into the woman's uterus. This method is commonly used for women with blocked oviducts.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
- Eggs and sperm are surgically placed into the fallopian tubes prior to fertilization.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
- Eggs are fertilized outside the woman's body and surgically introduced into oviducts after they begin to divide.
Gestational Carrier(Surrogacy)
- A female who agrees to carry a fetus for an infertile couple. Can be artificially inseminated by the father's sperm or to undergo IVF with the couple's embryo. The baby is carried to full term and given back to the couple. In return the couple pays her for her services around $50,000.
Third Trimester Physical changes
uterus enlarges 3 times its non pregnant size
breathing difficulties during sleeping
nipples darken
pelvic bones loosening (Making it easier to have the baby but harder to walk)
higher blood volume
lungs become more efficient
inhaling up to 40% more air
60% weight gain is caused by the baby
back pain
body pertains three extra quartz of water
legs, hands, feet and ankles swell
leg cramps
heart burn
digestion and metabolism are working at top efficiently
Braxton hip Contractions (short, irregular, and painless vibrations) it gets more intense closer to due date
lightening- A process where the uterus sinks down because the baby's head settles into the pelvic
pelvic pressure increases
frequent urination
Third Trimester Emotional changes
anxiousness and nervousness
Tired of being tired
more stressed
feeling less attractive
Even the father feeling more anxious

Water birth is childbirth that occurs in water. Proponents believe water birth results in a more relaxed, and less painful experience.
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