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psychology Task 1
Transcript of psychology Task 1
Personality and Motivation in sport
According to trait theorists , people cannot help the way they act as it is predetermined at birth
Trait theorist Eysenck
Traits are Habitual patterns of behaviour,
thoughts and emotions
Hans Eysenck measured personality traits believing personality to have biological roots
Situational approach to personality takes into account the influence of the environment. It sees personality as ever changing and developing as a result of experiences and situations.
Social Learnig theory
Albert Bandura Social learning theory
Interactionist approach considers personality trait interaction, with situation, as predictor of behaviour.
Situational factors are particularly strong in competitive sport as a means of predicting behaviour.
Marten's schematic view
Psycho dynamic theory
This is the most internal of the personality levels and is thought to be the true self.
Inaccessibility makes it the most difficult level to research but it is known to be stable and
remains relatively constant over time.
Typical responses are changeable and are learned behaviours. They become modified as the person responds to environmental situations. They often reflect the makeup of the personality core.
This is the most external of the personality levels. It is therefore the level that is dynamic and changeable. An individual may have to adjust in order to fulfil many different roles in one day, for example the role of student, coach or friend. Role-related behaviour is a direct consequence of the immediate environment
Dynamic relationship between subconscious and conscious motivation behind behaviour
Participation without external reward
Enjoyment, self fulfilment
Types of motivation
Accomplishment-internal drive for Increasing skill level and sense of accomplishment
Stimulation - Adrenaline rush
External mechanism for motivation
Extrinsic rewards must be used carefully. If reward is given too frequently or easily its value is diminished.
Acheivement motivation theory
Achievement motivation comes from athletes personality and is their drive for success
A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success , persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishment'
What would a Nach or Naf be like?
Past performances and experiences will influence an athletes confidence. Their last performance will affect the way they approach the next performance.
Successes are often attributed to internal causes whereas failure is often blamed on external factors such as equipment and officials! This is called a self-serving bias.
Repeated failures or disappointments often lead to the belief that failure is inevitable in certain situations, leading to feelings that the outcome is uncontrollable. This is known as learned helplessness.
The observer and role model are the same gender
conditions that promote social learning
When observed behaviour is demonstrated by a ‘significant’ other
or role model of high status
When the observer wants to adopt the norms and values of a new
culture, i.e. after joining a new team or working with different people
The role model is powerful and authoritative
Behaviour = Function of Personality x
Environment (B = F (P x E))
The interactionist approach is not simple. Any
behaviour or response in sport can be the outcome
of unlimited combinations of personality and
environmental factors. For example, a player may
respond positively to the autocratic leadership of
a captain for most of the time, but this leadership
style may trigger an aggressive response on one
Type A Type B
Highly competitive Non-competitive
Works fast Works more slowly
Strong desire to succeed Lacking in desire to succeed
Likes control Does not enjoy control
Prone to suffer stress Less prone to stress
Type B characteristics Type B characteristics
'An internal factor that arouses and directs behaviour' Stallings (1966)
The intensity and direction of one's effort
Weinberg & Gould (1991)
Curiosity and thirst for knowledge about performance. Desire to learn new techniques
Good for short term motivation
Think of the impact extrinsic rewards have on intrinsic motivation!!
the theory takes into account athlete's personality and situation
Atkinson and McClelland (1976) view achievement motivation as a personality trait
which is activated by a situation. The situation comprises the probability of success and the incentive value of success.
• Probability of success – the extent to which
success is likely; for example, success is more How might a Nach respond to this?
likely if the task is found by the individual to
• Incentive value of success – the intrinsic value
experienced by the individual after success has
been achieved; for example, the harder the task How might a Naf respond to this ?
the greater will be the incentive value because
the probability of success is reduced.
Describes behaviour that accepts a challenge.
Describes behaviour that rejects a challenge.
What effect can attributions have on performance, and expectations of future success?
What should coaches consider ?
Research suggests internal attribution more mature than external.
It’s key to accept responsibility for actions, when appropriate ,in order to improve in future.
Attributions should not suggest failure is inevitable next time and avoid Learned Helplessness - - - - - - - How can this be avoided ?
Attribution Theory - expectations of future success and effects of motivation
Id – instinctive drive
Unconscious and makes you do certain things without thinking about them
For example – the expectations as a premier league player steps up to take a penalty may make them freeze
Ego – Conscious part-what we can control
Super Ego – moral conscience
The effects of these two can be seen on our football player in a penalty shoot out, when the fear of missing causes them to refuse to take a penalty
Not often used in sport as it focuses on reasons that come from within, and tends to ignore the environment, which is an essential part of the athlete’s situation.
For P1, learners must first define personality and then describe how personality affects sports performance.
The description must include – as listed in the Unit content – a definition, personality theories, personality types and the effects on sports performance. This will be predominantly research-based and could include some of their own personality testing with their peers.
For P2, learners must describe the factors that affect the motivation of athletes. This must include a definition of motivation, along with a description of views of motivation, motivation types, theories of motivation and how motivation affects sports performance.
Grading criterion M1 links to criteria P1 and P2, requiring learners to explain the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance.
Grading criterion D1 builds on M1, and requires learners to evaluate the effects of personality and motivation
on sports performance. This means learners must make a judgement based on each of the effects that they
have described/explained (criteria P1, P2 and M1).