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What is mining?
Transcript of What is mining?
Federal University of Minas Gerais
School of Engineering - Department of Mining Engineering
Allefi Castro Silva
Belo Horizonte City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Mining is the activity, occupation, and industry concerned with the extraction of any naturally occuring mineral substances - solid, liquid, and gas - from the earth or other heavently bodies for utilitarian purposes.
Mining-related health effects' legislation
Pneumoconiosis (black lung): silica and coal dust, and asbestos
Efforts to reduce exposure of mine workers to these substances and particulate matter (cancer)
From the prehistoric times to the present
minimum water and chemical pollution
proper disposal of waste materials
minimum impact on the topography
minimum damage to the flora and fauna
, by Rachel Carson
Ocuppational Safety and Healthy Adminnistration -- OSHA
Is the possibility of exploiting raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
João Martins da Silva
Study aerial and satellite photographs
Study available geological maps and surface maps
Prepare photogeological maps from available information and new aerial data
Conduct preliminary ground geological, geophysical, and/or geochemical surveys
Assemble and analyze findings
Conclusive evidence of the existence of an ore body requires that samples representative of the whole deposit be collected and analyzed.
Samples are normally obtained by excavation or drilling
Define and evaluate the anomalies due to mineral deposits
Mining Exploitation Methods
Surface Mining or Underground Mining
The mining method selected is determined by characteristics of the mineral deposit and the limitations due to safety implications, economics and environmental concerns.
Ore / Waste (gangue)
Mineral transportation systems
Waste disposal areas
Crystals of cassiterite, a commercially valuable mineral, in a matrix of quartz, the gangue
After the mine closure: restoration of the land surface, the water quality, and the waste disposal areas.
Restoration of native plants
Subsequent Use of the Land
Solid waste disposal areas
Nova Lima, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Crushing - Grinding
Separation of particles according to their size.
Crushing and Grinding also called comminution is the process of reducing the size of the particles of the materials that were put in.
Results of Mining
Civil construction comes from mining
Government Regulations applied to Mining
The laws and regulations that apply to the mining industry are many and variety according to each country.
Mining Law of 1872
Mineral Leasing Act of 1920
Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969
Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT THE STAGES OF A MINE LIFE
YOU MIGHT BE WONDERING...
The practice of applying engineering principles to the development, planning, operation, closure, and reclamation of mines.
INTRODUCTORY MINING ENGINEERING; MUTMANSKY, Jan M.; HARTMAN, Howart L.; 2nd edition; New Jersey, USA, 2002.
United States Department of Labor: <https://www.osha.gov/>
Much of the credit for this presentation goes to Manassés Soares, an ex-student at UFMG's School of Engineering, whose initiative has inspired me to find a way to explain such a complex topic as mining.
I especially dedicate this presentation to my classmates for being such an intelligent class.