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Evolution of the Flight Suit During WW2
Transcript of Evolution of the Flight Suit During WW2
To get anything into the sky you need to get a NOTAM. (A NOTAM is a Notice to Airmen that you will be launching something in the air.)
Mr. Neef spoke to the 8th graders about filing a NOTAM to let pilots know to look out for a weather balloon while flying through the same airspace.
As you go higher in the altitude the air molecules are spread out more. The more the gas molecules are spread out the less pressure there is and the harder it gets to breathe.
Each gas has a partial pressure. The sum of the partial pressures of a mixture of gases equals the total amount of pressure.
The more pressure there is, the more gasses can be dissolved into a liquid.
Law of Gaseous Diffusion
Zones of Atmosphere
Balloon Launch Data
Evolution of the Flight Suit During WWII
Balloon Launch Process
Flight Suit Components
History of the Flight Suit
Arteries, Capillaries and Veins
Temperature Changes in Altitude
Physiology is your body, the effects is what happens to your body when put under specific circumstances.
The higher the altitude the more the air molecules spread making it harder to breathe. The percentage of the gases that form the air do not change.
Sea Level- 760mmHG of pressure
18,000 Feet- 380mmHG of pressure
The air pressure decreases by half at around double the height.
This occurs at 63,000 Feet or approximately 12 Miles in the air. If you aren't wearing a space suit once you cross this line your blood will boil!
This occurs when there is oxygen deficiency in blood, cells and tissue. Hypoxia causes impaired function.
Air Hunger, Anxiety, Fatigue, Nausea, Headaches/Dizziness, Hot/Cold Flashes, Over Confidence, and Blurred Vision.
This occurs when there is low barometric pressure causes nitrogen bubbles to form in body fluids and tissues in the joints.
Joint Pain, Headache/Dizziness, Foggy Thinking, Extreme Fatigue, Tingling/Numbness, Muscle Weakness, and Skin Rash.
Mr. Lydy tested the GPS by driving driving down to Athens, Ohio makeing sure the GPS signal was recorded on the website.
The FAA is the Federal Aviation Administration.
We double checked the batteries and and made sure everything was turned on.
We filled a bottle with water and made sure it was the same weight as the payload.
For every 1,000 feet the temperature drops 3 degrees Fahrenheit. Even though it’s harder to breath as you go up in the atmosphere, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere is the same.
The Facts about the atmosphere
The GPS sends a signal to a satellite to space. When the GPS goes to a certain altitude, the signal doesn't reach the satellite. This causes a blackout.
Sea level -10,000 ft.
Requirements to file a NOTAM
In this zone you can survive without any air support or a pressurized cabin. The higher the altitude the harder it is to survive so it takes training to prepare for the higher altitudes.
Physiological Deficient Zone
Gases move from higher to lower pressure. This is because the gases want to equalize the pressure. Higher pressure causes gas molecules closer together than lower pressure
Launch Site Location
Estimated altitude to 60,000 ft.(most aircraft cannot fly above this altitude)
Estimated Landing Time
Weather Balloon Identification
10,000ft. - 50,000ft.
The GPS sends signals every 10 minutes to the website that has the data. According to the data, the balloon flew for about 2 hours and 30 minutes before it crashed in a tree.
There were many parts of the flight suits in WWII. All of these components are vital to the survival of the WWII pilot.
This is an early model of a flight helmet. It is made of a thick, warm, and durable leather on the outside and fur in the inside (the most preferred material).
In this zone you will not survive without additional oxygen if your cabin isn't pressurized. Therefore you will need an oxygen mask.
Medical Conditions of Flight
The data is very clear until the GPS blacked out from the height and came back 80 miles away!
The knife is primarily used to cut parachute chords if the pilots get hung up in a tree. Being attached by a button pocket makes it easy to remove.
Affect of Altitude on Blood
The Air Force split the atmosphere into these three sections based on the dangers of each zone and the equipment needed.
The Flight Computer
B-22 Flying Fortress Gunner
The B-22 Bomber flew at very high altitudes and made the crew very cold. The gunner had the worst of it. While the other crew members were inside the plane protected from the harsh tempuratures.
The flight computer was attached to the payload and recorded the data of the balloon. It recorded the altitude, latitude, longitude, temperature, time, and date. The computer was an important aspect of the balloon, or else we wouldn't know what the flight was like.
We put the pieces together to make the payload and attatched the GPS, camera and flight computer.
An example for this is:
When you are in a plane and it's 75 degrees Fairenheit at sea level and lets say you go up 20,000 feet in the atmosphere, then the temperature would be about 15 degrees Fairenheit.
Ebullism is when the blood in your body starts to boil due to low atmospheric pressure. Liquid will start to bubble and show around joints. That condition is called decompreshin sickness or the bends for short
We attached the parachute to the frame.
Gay Lussacs Law
We tied a knot in the string that would hold onto the balloon while it's up in the atmosphere.
The balloon went to 25,000 meters or about 78,000 feet. This is over 10,000 feet above Armstrong's Line where liquid boils at 98.6 F, the same temperature as your blood.
Mr. Neef checked the wind speed by calling his office in Columbus.
We filled the balloon with helium.
A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at Armstrong's line or higher altitudes where the pressure is too low for a person to survive, even breathing air. The first U2 suit was created in 1955.
We sealed off the balloon with three rubber bands.
For our project, lightning would be the most dangerous weather for the balloon, even more than rain because lightning could mess up the GPS and camera. Also, it could hit the balloon and send it flying to the ground.
Mr. Neef checked the wind speed by calling his office for the second time.
Humidity and Effects:
The scarf provides comfort around the neck. It also is a map that doesn't make a lot of noise when the pilot unfolds it.
When you file a NOTAM, you need to provide your location as a distance and bearing from the nearest VOR station. This is the same way a pilot identifies his/her location. Pilots read an aeronautical chart and need some basic aeronautical chart reading skills.
These mittens would protect the pilots' hands from blisters and the frigid cold.
Space Equivalent Zone
We attatched the balloon to the flight line with electrical tape.
Humidity is when there is a lot of water from precipitation and it is so hot outside that most of the water turns to gas, but not hot enough to get back into the atmosphere.
50,000ft. and above
We made sure everything was lined up correctly on the field.
This could hurt our project because all of the water could pop the balloon because it would take all the spacein the balloon and fill it up
Temperatures within our Testing
In this zone you are required to wear the suit below due to low pressure and sub-zero temperatures.
When the temperature of a gas increases, the average pressure of that gas increases. When the temperature of a gas decreases, the average pressure decreases. It is directly proportional in the Kelvin scale of temperature.
Modern Fighter Pilot Suit
Mr. Neef checked the wind speed for the final time.
The map pocket has quick notes about the pilot's current mission. It's turned upside-down so the pilots don't have to remove their hands from their current task.
When you file a NOTAM you are assigned a Flight Service Specialist, FSS. The FSS is your go to person for launch information and directions. The FSS uses VOR (Very-high-frequency Omnidirectional Ranges) technology.
The modern fighter pilot attire consisted mostly of the same things as the U2 suit, also using air to pressurize. However the U2 suit had bladders that would pressurize at certain high alltitudes whereas the modern fighter pilots' suit's bladders would pressurize instantly.
We counted down from ten and then let go of the balloon.
First flight suits
These are five gas laws that are important to flight. If these laws are not taken into account, pilots and passengers may get hurt while flying in higher altitudes. These laws cannot be neglected while flying in higher altitudes.
Highest Altitude: 78,000 feet or 25,000 meters
Coldest Temperature: -60 C or -76 F
A VOR is a radio beacon that sends out two signals. One signal flashes in all the directions at once like a light flashing on the top of a pole. The other radio signal is like the rotating beam of light from a lighthouse. Both radio signals flash at the same time in the direction of magnetic north. As you move clockwise around the VOR station the two radio signals move away from each other one degree for every degree you rotate away from magnetic north.
DRSS STEMmersion 2014
All the eggs survived besides the control egg.
The first-aid kit contains medicine and supplies. The first-aid kit can help remove shards of metal from the pilot's body.
Mr.Neef from the FAA speaking to our class about the regulations
There are many types of weather in our world. Weather is the water, air and energy from the sky.
A Cold Reason
Different Types Of Weather
The first flight suits consisted of heavy pants, helmets, and most importantly, furlined leather jackets. The planes could barely go above cloud level then and the only harsh conditions was the slight chill.
This shows that the lower the altitude is, the more the air molecules are packed together.
The reason that the higher you go up in altitude it gets colder is that there are fewer air molecules colliding. So in turn there is less thermal energy created from those air molecules colliding and transferring energy.
Clouds are formed when water evaporates from the ground and goes into the atmosphere, where it forms clouds.
Lightning is caused by hot air and cool air in clouds rubbing together, which causes static electricity.
What are Veins, Capillaries, and Arteries?
The balloon landed about 80 miles away from the school.
Partition - a wall; something blocking or stopping someone or something. Diffusion - to spread or scatter widely or thinly; disseminate.
Rain is formed when clouds build up too much water, so they drop some water.
The Air Force uses these pressure chambers to prepare pilots for different altitudes.
Weather During Launch:
During the launch, it was a generally nice day.
There were not many clouds in the sky and the wind was very passive.
Pilots and passengers in unpressurized cabins (or in some jets, like the U2) have to wear special flight suits for the conditions.
The U2 JET
The humidity level of the day was high because of the storm happening throughout the week, but it didn't do anything to the balloon.
Wind and Its Effect:
Pilots and passengers on planes may experience many physiological changes at high altitudes. These include Hypoxia and Ebullism.
The data shows that the highest temperature was 79.3 degrees Fairenheit at the lowest altitude which means air molecules are closer together colliding. The data also shows that the coldest temperature was -70.6 degrees Fairenheit when the balloon was at the highest altitude. The average temperature was about 4.35 degrees Fairenheit.
Wind is made when hot air and cool air run into each other and bounce off.
Wind could have harmed our project because the balloon could have been hit by strong winds and could have crashed into the ground if there were strong winds.
The highest we went was near the edge of the Stratosphere.
The graph bellow shows the time, temperature, and altitude.