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Aristotle

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Kevin Martinez

on 14 January 2015

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Transcript of Aristotle

Aristotle observed that the validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content. Given the structure of the argument, as long as the premises are true, then the conclusion is also guaranteed to be true.

All As are Bs.
All Bs are Cs.
Hence, all As are Cs.

All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.

Aristotle's Life
Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in the small city of Stagira in the Macedonian region of northeastern Greece.

Aristotle’s father, Nicomachus, was the court physician to Macedonian King Amyntas II. Although Nicomachus died when Aristotle was just a young boy, Aristotle remained closely affiliated with and influenced by the Macedonian court for the rest of his life.

Little is known about Artistotle's mother, Phaesti. She is also believed to have died when he was young.
Aristotle's Life
After Aristotle’s father died, Proxenus of Atarneus, who was married to Aristotle’s older sister, Arimneste, became Aristotle’s guardian until he came of age.

When Aristotle turned 17 years old, Proxenus sent him to Athens to pursue a higher education.

At the time, Athens was considered as the academic center of the universe. In Athens, Aristotle enrolled in Plato’s Academy, Greek’s premier learning institution, and proved an exemplary scholar. Aristotle was able to study philosophy under Plato, who was himself a student of Socrates.
Aristotle's Life
Aristotle maintained a relationship with Plato and his academy for two decades.
Aristotle's Life
Aristotle went home to Macedonia to start tutoring King Phillip II’s son, who would eventually be known as Alexander the Great.

In 335 B.C., after Alexander had succeeded his father as king and conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to the city. Plato’s Academy, now run by Xenocrates, was still the leading influence on Greek thought.

With Alexander’s permission, Aristotle set up his own school in a public exercise area dedicated to the god Apollo Lykeios, whence its name, the Lyceum.
Aristotle's Life
Those affiliated with Aristotle's school later came to be called
Peripatetics
, probably because of the existence of a peripatos on the school's property adjacent to the exercise ground.

Members of the Lyceum conducted research into a wide range of subjects, all of which were of interest to Aristotle himself: botany, biology, logic, music, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, cosmology, physics, metaphysics, psychology, the history of philosophy, ethics, theology, rhetoric, government and political theory, political history, and the arts.

Aristotle's Life
"Father of Logic"
One of the main focuses of Aristotle’s philosophy was his systematic concept of logic.

Although today we recognize many forms of logic beyond Aristotle's, it remains true that he developed a theory of deduction, now called
syllogism
.

Aristotle’s brand of logic dominated this area of thought until the rise of modern propositional logic and predicate logic 2000 years later.


"Father of Logic"
Ethics
Aristotle observed that the validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content. Given the structure of the argument, as long as the premises are true, then the conclusion is also guaranteed to be true.

All
A
s are
B
s.
All
B
s are
C
s.
Hence, all
A
s are
C
s.

All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.

Aristotle follows Socrates and Plato in taking the virtues to be central to a well-lived life, such as: justice, courage, and temperance.

However, he rejects Plato's idea that a training in the sciences and metaphysics is a necessary prerequisite for a full understanding to live a good life.

Ethics
In order to apply that general understanding to particular cases, we must acquire, through proper upbringing and habits, the ability to see, on each occasion, which course of action is best supported by reasons.

Therefore
practical wisdom
, as he conceives it, cannot be acquired solely by learning general rules. We must also acquire, through practice, those deliberative, emotional, and social skills that enable us to put our general understanding of well-being into practice in ways that are suitable to each occasion.
Metaphysics
As opposed to Plato's metaphysics, Aristotle argued that particulars were more important than Form.

He believed that something concrete and tangible was more real than something abstract.
Metaphysics
Substances are the basic elements in Aristotle's metaphysics.

"Substance," as Aristotle defines it, is "that which stands alone."
Metaphysics
Substance can also be characterized through
change
. It underlies the properties and changes of something.

"Substance, while remaining the same, is capable of admitting contrary properties."

Will you be the same after you've undergone a haircut?


Metaphysics
Substance is also characterized by its
essence
.
An essence is something essential to make a particular a particular / an individual an individual. This can also be known as essential features.

Socrates was Socrates because he was wise and lived in the fourth century of B.C., and would not be Socrates without this.

Metaphysics
Substances also have
accidental features
, which are not required for a particular to be that particular.
These can also be called
incidental features
.

Socrates had a wart on his nose, and even without this wart, Socrates would still be Socrates.
Properties of a Substance
In Aristotle's metaphysics, "One does not have an explanation unless one knows the purpose of a thing." There are four "causes" regarding a substance.

Material cause
Formal cause
Efficient cause
Final cause


Properties of a Substance
Material cause
is the matter that the object is made out of.

Formal cause
is the shape or form.

Efficient cause
is the creator of an object

Final cause
is the ultimate purpose of an object, its prime mover.
Metaphysics
Prior to Aristotle, earlier philosophers only believed in either matter or forms.

By combining the two, change can be explained.
The matter, or substance, will never change; however, its form can.

Caterpillars can change into butterflies and seeds can change to flowers by changing their form, yet their matter, are still the same.
Cosmology
Teleology
- The goal or purpose of something. In Aristotle's metaphysics, "One does not have an explanation unless one knows the purpose of a thing."

Every object had its "place" and if that object moved, it would return to its rightful place through its own means.

He used this for his theory that earth materials go down and fire goes up.
"It has been said of each other them that the history of philosophy is nothing more than a series of footnotes to their brilliant dialogues and treatises of twenty-four hundred years ago."
Plato died in 347 B.C. Because Aristotle had disagreed with some of Plato’s philosophical treatises, Aristotle did not inherit the position of director of the academy, as many imagined he would.
When Aristotle’s former student, Alexander the Great, died suddenly in 323 B.C., the pro-Macedonian government was overthrown. In light of anti-Macedonia sentiment, Aristotle was charge with impiety.

To avoid being prosecuted, he left Athens and fled to Chalcis on the island of Euboea. He died there of natural causes the following year, in 322. B.C.
Primary substances examples are the particular thing and secondary substances are what it belongs to.

Horse to animal relationship:
Horse is the primary substance and animal is secondary.
Margie Francisco
Kevin Martinez
PI101-02
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