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The Legacies of the Ancient World- Ancient Egypt
Transcript of The Legacies of the Ancient World- Ancient Egypt
Great Pyramid of Khufu is the largest true pyramid
These pyramids still stand today, and are one the major tourist attractions in Egypt
Still intrigue archaeologists today, as no one knows the truth behind how they were built, although there are many probable theories including the internal ramp theory
They are one of the seven wonders of the world
Have been replicated in various places around the world, including Las Vegas The Sphinx at Giza Built to guard Khafra’s pyramid
Has the body of a lion and the head of king Khafra
One of the mysteries of the ancient world; no one knows who built it or when it was built
Largest monolith statue in the world
Archeologists today still look for the answers to the mystery
Still exists today, however many parts have been restored since it has been worn away over time Temples It was the people’s connection to the gods; built for worship and commemoration
Some well known temples include The Luxor Temple, the Temple of the Aten, Temple of Horus, and the Karnak Temple Complex
Temples give us important information on ancient Egyptian daily life as well as their religion
They remain to be one of the main tourist attractions in Egypt, as many of them are very well preserved Literature & Language Ancient Egyptian literature and written language has helped us to understand the thoughts and beliefs of ancient Egyptians, while leaving behind a rich cultural legacy. Funerary Texts Include pyramid texts, coffin texts, and the Book of the Dead
Pyramid texts were inscribed into walls and sarcophagi of pyramids of pharaohs, and had spells to help protect them in the afterlife
Coffin texts were inscribed on coffins, and were used by all people; they were sometimes abbreviated, and similar to pyramid texts, also had spells (protection)
The Book of the Dead was buried with the deceased, and contained spells that would assist their journey to the afterlife
These texts give us an understanding of how important religion was to ancient Egyptians, as well as how much they valued life Rosetta Stone Used to help translate Egyptian Hieroglyphs and Demotic to Greek so historians are able to learn and decipher both languages (the same text in 3 different languages)
Took 20 years to completely translate
Carved in 196 BCE on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
Was found in a town named Rosetta (hence the name of the stone), and is currently on display in the British Museum
The stone is not complete (parts of it have broken off)
The Rosetta Stone has proven to be very important in helping us to learn the Egyptian script, which has allowed us to further our understanding and knowledge of ancient Egypt Hieroglyphs Form of ancient Egyptian writing
Found in pyramids, on coffins, and various pieces of literature from ancient Egypt
Hieroglyphs give us insight on everything from ancient Egyptian daily life, to Egyptian government
The hieroglyphs left behind by the ancient Egyptians are key in understanding ancient Egyptian culture, and leave a great legacy, as they continue to intrigue future generations Religion Ancient Egyptian religion is very well known in our modern day society, and is a key contributing factor to the great legacy that was left behind. Mummification The mummification process was a very important part of ancient Egyptian religion
Many steps in the mummification process: washing & wrapping of the body, drying of the body with natron salt, removal of the organs & placing them into canopic jars, and the burial process (spells, the Book of the Dead, amulets)
Mummification allows historians to learn about the Egyptian pharaohs, as well as leaves behind a huge legacy, as mummies are very well known in our modern society
It also tells us that the ancient Egyptians truly valued life, and believed that the preservation of the body was an essential part in allowing the pharaoh to travel to the afterlife 5 Parts of a Human Ib (Heart), shadow, Ren (name), Ba, Ka
The ancient Egyptians believed that the human was made of these five parts, and if any of these parts were missing, the human wouldn’t be able to live in the afterlife
Akh (Ba and Ka reunite to create this in the afterlife)- “soul”
The joining of the Ka and the Ba were very important (if they weren’t joined, the person wouldn’t be able to travel successfully into the afterlife)
Since life was very important to Egyptians, these 5 parts give us more insight into their culture and beliefs
These 5 parts were a very essential part of ancient Egyptian religion, and many of these still remain with humans today (a name (Ren), a shadow, a heart (Ib))
However, we don’t really have a Ka or a Ba; instead, we have a soul Gods & Myths Ma’at-goddess of balance and harmony
Also associated with the feather of Ma’at, which is weighed against the heart (Ib) in order for the human to pass successfully into the afterlife
Horus-the living embodiment of the pharaoh
Osiris-the god of the dead and the ruler of the underworld
These gods were very important to the ancient Egyptians as they represent the 3 things that were most important to them; harmony and balance, life, and the afterlife
Ennead- 9 god creation myth
The creation myth includes 9 gods that make up different parts of the earth, including the sky (Nut), air (Shu), earth (Geb), as well as the creator god Atum
The gods and goddesses, as well as the ennead, are very important in explaining the basis for ancient Egyptian religion, as well as why different aspects of life were so important to them Conclusion In conclusion, the legacy that was left behind by the ancient Egyptians through their literature and language, architecture, and religion, has paved the way for many of our beliefs and religion today, as well as given us insight on their way of life.