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Bullying

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Mia Nguyen

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of Bullying

Bullying
By: Jennifer Dunitz-Geiringer, Yadira Garcia, Michael Grela, and Mia Nguyen

Responses to Bullying: What can we do?

References
What is Bullying?
What is Bullying?
Micro level: victim, bystander and bully
Identify victims and potential victims- Increase feelings of confidence and resilience by identifying and encouraging pursuit of strengths, provide social skills and strength based counseling.
Identify bystanders - encourage and reward upstanding behavior. Tap into feelings of empathy and collective action.
Identify bullies - identify type of aggressive behavior and provide targeted interventions.
Mezzo Level: School, Classroom and Peer Culture.
Bully(ies)
Victim(s)
/Target(s)
Bystanders/Upstanders
Microsystem
Mesosystem
School
Family
Community
Work
Friends
Exosystem
Media
School Government
Macrosystem
Community
Meetings
State
Government
“aggressive behavior or intentional harmdoing, which is carried out repeatedly and over time in an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power” Olweus, 1994
"Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time." stopbullying.gov
Arsenio,W.F. (2006). “The effects of social injustice and inequality on children’s moral judgments and behavior: Towards a theoretical model.” Cognitive Development, 21 (4), 388-400.

Berkowitz, R. “Student and Teacher Responses to Violence in Schools: The Divergent Views of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims.” School Psychology International. 35(5), 485-499.

Bullying Definition. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/definition/index.html

Cowie, H. (2011). “Peer Support: A Strategy to Help Bystanders Challenge School Bullying.” Children and Society, 25, 287-292.

Clark, M. (2013). “Criminal Case Puts Focus on Bullying Laws.” The Pew Charitable Trust.

Davis, S. (2009). “How Should School Staff Respond to Bullying Behavior?” Education.com.

Garandeau, C. & Salmivalli, C. (2014). “Inequality Matters: Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents’ Bullying.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1123-1133.

Graham, S. (2005). “Bullying: A Module for Teachers.” American Psychological Association.
Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. “State Cyberbullying Laws.” Cyberbullying Research Center. doi: http://www.cyberbullying.us.

Lannotti Ronald, Nasal R. Tunja, Wang Jing (2004) School Bullying Among Adolescents in the United States: Physical, Verbal, Relational, and Cyber.Journal of Adolescent Health 45 (4) 368-375

Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at School: Basic Facts and Effects of a School Based Intervention Program. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35(7), 1171-1190.

Padgett, S. & Notar, C.E. (2013). “Bystanders are the Key to Stopping Bullying.” Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 33-41.

Ramirez, O. (2014). Suvivors of School Bullying: A Collective Case Study. National Association of Social Workers, 35(2), 93-99. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://cs.oxfordjournals.org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/content/35/2/93

Robinson Claire & Witenberg Rivta (2013) The Influence of Moral Disengagement , Moral Based self-esteem, Age, & Gender on Traditional Bullying & Cyberbullying.Journal of School Violence 12 211-231

Rodkin, P. & Hodges, E.V. (2003). “Bullies and Victims in the Peer Ecology: Four Questions for Psychologists and School Professionals.” School Psychology Review, 32(3), 384-400.

Rogers, A. (2013). Human behavior in the social environment (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Ross, S. & Horner, R. (2009). “Bully Prevention and Behavior Support.” Applied Behavioral Analysis, 42(4), 747-759.
StopBullying.gov. doi: http//www.stopbullying.gov/laws/federal/index.html.

You're an Upstander! (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2014, from http://www.thebullyproject.com/be_an_upstander

Ramirez, 2014
Federal Governement
Politics & Laws
Cultural Norms
Looking at responses from a micro, mezzo and macro level.
School Culture
Clear, collaborative, well communicated behavior expectations
Consistent enforcement of rules with clearly defined consequences
Anonymous ways for students to report violence
Assignment of community or parent volunteers to monitor areas of "invisible" bullying
Create sense of community and belonging
Classroom
Culture
Remove formal barriers to student/staff relationships by assigning a staff mentor to all students
Encourage teachers to look for classroom"outliers"
Set clear and consistent classroom rules with actual consequences
Create egalitarian classrooms by removing hierarchies/ mix students of different academic levels, frequently change seating charts, create informal groupings of diverse students
Peer Culture
Create peer mentoring programs - identify and assign at risk students to a "buddy"
Benefits of such programs are that kids are more likely to identify bullying behavior, kids are more likely to confide in one another
Provides benefits to both mentor and mentee
Creates a feeling of community and belonging
Makes upstanding as opposed to bystanding more likely.
Macro Level:
Federal and State Laws
Federal: There are no federal anti-bullying laws, though bullies have been prosecuted through civil rights and hate crime laws.

State: All of the states except for Montana have anti-bullying legislation. However, there is a lot of variability in terms of definitions and penalties.
Are we doing enough to protect our children?
Should administrators, school boards and even teachers be held liable for deaths as a result of bullying?
Types of Bullying

Physical
punching
hitting
shoving
slapping
Verbal
name calling
teasing
rumor spreading
social exclusion
Cyber- Bullying
emails
text messages
posting pictures/ videos on social media
creating websites
Sexual Harassment
Unwanted sexual behavior
Gender
Different studies have shown there is no gender in bullying

Boys tend to act more on physical bullying and girls on verbal.
Girls bullying behaviors are higher in middle school.
Ethnicity
Research shows there is no Ethnic differences
Based on the dynamic of the community, not ethnic group.
Age
Adolescents tend to be more involved in cyber-bullying
There is no specific age group on bullying.

Boys tend to act on direct bullying and girls on indirect.
Girls tend to be more victims of cyber-bullying
Physical Bullying is more common in African American and Hispanic adolescents
African American and Hispanic are more likely to be perpetrators compared to Caucasian
Effects of bullying
Biopsychosocial perspective
Biological
Research provides compelling evidence for why the hurt persists well beyond the abuse
Peer victimization becomes biologically embedded in the developing person. Placing him or her at risk for life long mental and physical health problems
Neuroscience
Recent research in areas of neuroscience provides convincing evidence for why and how bullying effects
Deficits were noted in Prefrontal executive functions and medial temporal lobe memory functions
Dysregulation of neuroendocrine repsonse to stress
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)
(Hymel, Vaillancourt,McDougall, 2013)
Bullied children tend to produce uncharacteristic cortisol than their non bullied peers
Increased DNA methylation of the serotonin transporter
Cortisol - hormone (helps to regulate stress, sleep, energy, happiness
Associated with significant telomere erosion
Psychological
Peer victimization - stressful experience
Low self -esteem
Depression
Anxiety
Low concept of self worth
Helplessness
Bullying can lead course of violence
Respond aggressively
(bullock,2002)
Suicidal thoughts
Suicide attempts
During adolescence
In adolescence bullying might affect
executive functioning
attention
response inhibition
organization
planning
(Idsoe,Dyregrov,Idsoe, 2012)
(Tariq,Tayyab, 2011)
Social
Higher suicides attempts in youth who perceived their situation as socially hopeless
Poor students / poor academic achievement
Difficulties in peer relationships
Social withdraw
Unpopularity with peers
Peer relationships during adolescence / adult or workplace
lack of close friends at school
Skipping school
Must perceive their environment as being safe, secure, and comfortable
Extreme cases bring weapons into school
Difficultly developing and maintaining positive relationships
Robin Tomlin - " I feel like emotionally they (the bullies) have been beating me with a stick for 42 years".
"individuals can relive and re-experience social pain more easily and more intensely than physical pain"
Humiliating experiences among peers not easily forgotten
(Hymel, Vaillancourt,McDougall, 2013)
(Hymel, Vaillancourt,McDougall, 2013)
(Idsoe,Dyregrov,Idsoe, 2012)
(Bullock,2002)
(Bullock, 2002)
Economic Forces
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