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Compare/Contrast between Greek and Roman Gods

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siobhan skuce

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Compare/Contrast between Greek and Roman Gods

Compare/Contrast between Greek and Roman Mythology
Poseidon God of the Sea Neptune
Hades God of the dead Pluto
Artemis Goddess of the Hunt and the Moon Diana
Athena Goddess of Wisdom Minerva
Ares God of War Mars
Demeter Goddess of the Harvest Ceres
Hephaestus God of the Forges Vulcan
Hera Goddess of Marriage (Queen) Juno
Hermes God of Travelers and Messages Mercury
Apollo God of the Sun Phoebus Apollo
Aphrodite Goddess of Love Venus
Eros God of Love Cupid
Dionysus God of Wine Bacchus
Zeus God of thunder (King) Jupiter
Greek mythology is said to have followed the book "The Iliad" which was written by Homer over 700 years before the beginning of the Roman Empire. It is a 24 book long poem featuring the main character which is Achilles.
Roman mythology is said to have come about around 1000 years after the Ancient Greeks and closely follows the book "Aeneid" by Virgil, which is a 12 book long epic poem about a Trojan man who sailed to Rome.
History of Mythology
Greece: One hypothesis about the origins of greek mythology is that it originated from the Ancient Egyptians. But the only basis for this is that they also believed in multiple gods. The Minoan group was the first civilization in the area of Greece (on the island of Crete) where it is also believed that Greek Mythology could have come from.

Rome: Before Romans adopted the greek gods, they still worshiped something, just something less structured. They were called "numina" which means "powers", and there were hardly any stories about them. The Romans later changed their mythology to follow the Ancient Greeks.
Central Myths
Names and Domain of Rule
Nobody knows what first started Greek mythology but what we do know is that Roman Mythology, which came about 1000 years after the Greeks, closely followed their stories and gods. Around 146 BC, Romans officially took over Greece into their empire however they were always fascinated with the Greeks even before that.
Personal Knowledge
The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology - Arthur Cotterell and Rachel Storm
The Minotaur: This is the story surrounding the island of Crete and the Kind of Crete, Minos. According to the myth he had a giant labyrinth constructed to hold the Minotaur, a half man half bull, which was the offspring of Minos's wife who was cursed. Each year, Minos required that 7 young men and 7 young women be sent into the labyrinth to be fed to the bull. After several years of this a young man named Theseus volunteered to go and kill the minotaur. Theseus and Ariadne (King Minos's daughter) fell in love and she gave him a string in order to navigate the labyrinth. He was able to kill the minotaur and himself and Ariadne sailed back to Athens (Unfortunately he abandoned her on the way back).
Remus and Romulus were two twins who were born to Mars, the god of war, and a woman named Rhea Silva. She was the child of a king who was killed by his brother but was forced to stay a virgin so that there would be no other heir to the throne, but Remus and Romulus were born anyways. Fearing for their lives, Rhea sent them down the River Tiber in a basket where they were found by a she-wolf named Lupa who decided to raise the twins like her cubs. They were found later on by a Shepard and were raised by him. When the brothers became adults they decided to build a city in the spot where Lupa had found them, but they argued and Romulus killed Remus. This made Romulus the only ruler and this became the city of Rome.
Comparison: Many of the Greek myths were similar to Roman stories apart from a couple specific ones (for example the Aeneid, Remus and Romulus)
but the only differences were that the Roman stories were much less centered on mortals whereas the Greek myths were extremely influenced by the actions of mortals
Origins of Mythology
Comparison: Both books are extremely long epic poems

Both books are also set during the 10 year war on the city of Troy from the Ancient Greeks

According to "classroom.synonym.com" in the two books the heroes have to kill their foes, and they also each lose someone close to them.
The gods in this book are Greek and the hero in this book is blessed with near immortality, but he is also tortured and full of rage and wants no part in the Trojan war.
In this book, the hero is just a regular demigod (his mother is Venus, the roman version of Aphrodite) who is sent to Italy to "fulfill his destiny" and start the Roman Empire.
What is Greek and Roman Mythology?
Greek mythology is the religion of the ancient Greek people and the stories that explained how the religion related to the world around them (ex: winter occurs because Demeter is mourning for Persephone, who is in the underworld).

Roman Mythology is the religion of the ancient Romans, but it is more focused on how the gods affected the city of Rome.
Life after Death:
Greeks didn't like to focus as much on the afterlife but more on the current lives they were living. They did believe in a domain ruled by Hades the god of death where people who had done bad things in their lives would be punished and people who had done good would be rewarded with Elysium and could be reborn. Those who were reborn 3 times and received Elysium all 3 times would be sent to the Isles of the Best (or in some cases the Isles of the Blest) where they could live on forever in peace and happiness.

Romans also believed that if you did good on earth you would also be rewarded when you died, and their beliefs followed the Greeks very closely except that the god who ruled the underworld was named Dis instead of Hades. They also believed that it was possible to join the gods in the afterlife. Greeks believed this somewhat but it was truer for the great hero's, for example Hercules.
The Greeks also believed that mortals were central to mythology and to making most myths take place, and also that they were central to everyday life.

Roman mythology was, for the most part, focused entirely on the gods and mortals weren't as important to the stories.
Traits and Appearance
Greek Gods were given a "perfect" physical appearances with big muscles, perfect features and long flowing hair. They were meant to be something that all people would aspire to be and were meant to be better than humans in a sense. However, their personalities were based upon human traits like fear,
hope, love, etc. rather than on
specific objects and so there actions were more humanlike than godlike
Roman Gods weren't given a set way that they looked but instead their appearance was left to the individual person to interpret what they looked like, making them more realistic. Named after and based on other things rather than human traits (these things include places and objects) and the planets were also named after these gods. They were given more war oriented personalities and stories.
Comparison: The gods were both governed over the same things
ex: Zeus/Jupiter was the king god and the god of lightning however they were depicted in different ways and were given different sets of traits.
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