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European Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1600

WH Chapter 17
by

Meryl Leigh

on 11 December 2017

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Transcript of European Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1600

European Renaissance
Renaissance
Period of great cultural change and achievement that transitioned Europe from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern period

Causes of the Renaissance
1) Rediscovery of Classical Works
Scholars reintroduced important works from Greece & Rome
2) Invention of the Printing Press
Invented by Johann Gutenberg
Moveable type allowed for the mass production of cheap books
3) Political & Social Institutions
Highly urbanized city-states
The heritage of Greece and Rome
Geographic center of trade
Competition between elite families for influence and fame
4) Black Death
6) Humanism
Form of cultural activity and education aimed at creating better citizens

5) War & Peace
Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans leads to Christian and Jewish scholars arriving in the West
End of the Hundred Years War spread Italian ideas
Crash Course!
House of Medici
Powerful banking family and political dynasty that controlled Florence, Italy
Cosimo de Medici
Lorenzo de Medici
Florence, Italy
Birthplace of the Italian Renaissance
Brunelleschi's Dome
Important Writers
Petrarch
Father of Humanism and credited with translating Greek and Roman texts

Niccolo Machiavelli
Author of
The Prince
Practical guide for ruling based on power politics, warcraft and popular goodwill
Dante Alighieri
Wrote
The Divine Comedy
Allegory for the soul's journey towards God
William Shakespeare
Thug Notes!
Scientific Revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus
Mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the Earth goes around the Sun (heliocentric)
Galileo Galilei
The Father of Modern Astronomy
Improved the telescope and proved the heliocentric model true
Rene Descartes
Mathematician and philosopher who is considered the founder of Western philosophy
Isaac Newton
Key figure of the Scientific Revolution who proved the theory of gravity, invented calculus, advanced optics, etc.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Artistic, mathematical and scientific genius who is considered to be one of the most talented people in history
Tried and found guilty of heresy by the Inquisition
Forced to recant his writings and sentenced to house arrest for life
Cartesian Coordinate System
Cogito Ergo Sum
"I think, therefore I am"
Epic Rap Battles of History!!!
Big Think!
Vitruvian Man
Botany & Geology
Human Anatomy
Drawings
Vitruvian Man
War Machines
The Sci Show!!!
Protestant Reformation
Renaissance Artists
Hieronymus Bosch
Dutch painter known for his fantastic imagery of spiritual and moral concepts
Sandro Boticelli
Albrecht Durer
Michelangelo
Italian sculpter and painter who is considered one of three Renaissance masters
Leonardo Da Vinci
Seven Deadly Sins & the Four Last Things
Garden of Earthly Delights
Birth of Venus
Raphael
Italian painter and architect who is considered one of the three Renaissance masters
Wedding of the Virgin
School of Athens
Four Horseman of the Apocalypse
La Pieta
David
Sistine Chapel
Mona Lisa
The Last Supper
Pride
Gluttony
Sloth
Envy
Wrath
Lust
Greed
God Separating Light from Dark
Good Creating the Sun and the Moon
The Creation of Adam
Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Discussion Questions
What is the single most important technology invented in the last 100 years?
Why?
How has this technology changed the world we live in?

The Catholic Church in the 1400s
Protestant Reformers
Counter Reformation
English Reformation
Corruption
Competition with secular leaders for political power
General moral decay - luxurious life of the popes, immorality of clergy
Indulgences
Lessening of the time spent in purgatory in exchange for donations to the Church (get out of jail free card)

The Reformation and the Man Who Started It All
Martin Luther
German priest who is considered the founder of the Protestant Reformation
95 Theses
Series of criticisms against the Catholic Church nailed to the Church door
95 Theses Rap
Luther's Beliefs
God determines who gets into heaven, not the Church
Saved through faith alone, not actions
Average person should be able to read and interpret the Bible
Priests should marry
Catholic Reaction to Luther
Excommunicated by the Church
Declared outlaw by Holy Roman Empire
German princes & peasants supported causing civil war

Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious war in Germany and allowed princes to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism
John Calvin
English protestant who believed that humans are predestined for damnation or salvation; Actions change nothing
Council of Trent
Meeting of Catholic experts to condemn Protestantism, reaffirm Church teachings, and fix corruption
Reconquista
800 year period of successive Christian attacks on Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula
Ferdinand and Isabella
Alhambra Decree
Edict ordering the expulsion of Jews from Spain and its territories
Not formally revoked until 1968

Inquisition
Court system used to maintain Catholic orthodoxy and to root out secretly practicing Muslims and Jews

Henry VIII
Second: Anne Boleyn
Execution of Anne Boleyn
Tudor king who had
SIX
wives and created the Anglican Church
First: Catherine of Aragon
Anglican Church
Protestant Church founded in England by Henry VIII
Third: Jane Seymour
Fifth: Catherine Howard
Sixth: Catherine Parr
Succession to the Throne
Elizabeth I
The Virgin Queen
Settled religious divisions between Catholics and Protestants in England
Cemented England's role as a world power
Fourth: Anne of Cleves
Edward I
"Bloody" Mary
Death of Henry VIII
Henry's Clothes
Discussion Question???
What books are most popular right now?
Why do they have so much appeal?
What could it tell you about society?
Gutenberg Changed the World!
Whose invention is shown?
What was it used to make?
What long-term effects did it have on society?
1. How are individuals viewed according to humanism?
2. What did humanism expect people to do in their everyday lives?
3. Why did humanists believe it was important to study?

Every person has dignity & worth, man has unlimited potential
Seek fulfillment in daily life;
Challenge old traditions & institutions
They believed that education stimulated the creative powers of the individual. Students should study history, philosophy, math, literature…
1. Why did Martin Luther post his 95 Theses?
2. What were the views of Martin Luther?
3. How did Luther's views go against the ideas of the pope?
CHANGE
In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics?
What advantages fostered the Renaissance in Italy?
Major Outcomes of Council of Trent:
Reaffirmed link between faith and good works = salvation
Clear regulation of religious service
Catholic missionary group formed in response to the Reformation
Highly educated and devout, spread across the world
Jesuits
How did Protestant teaching lead to the formation of new groups?
It encouraged people to discover their own truths in the bible.
How did Henry VIII's marriages and divorces cause religious turmoil in England?
They caused abondonment of Catholicism and the creation of a new church.
Changes in economy AND attitudes
Modern Shakespeare Adaptations
The Taming of the Shrew
The Twelth Night
Romeo and Juliet
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