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japan foreign policy

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iso airy

on 18 October 2016

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Transcript of japan foreign policy

historical c0ntext
Group f
external factors

2001. 09. 11 Terrorists attacked United Stated
2001. 10. 08 U.S and British military strikes began in Afghanistan
2001. 10. 29 Koizumi passed “Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law”
2003 – 2006 The law was extended
2007. 11 The law expired
2008. 01 The government passed a new bill “Supply Support Special Measures Bill”
2010. 01 The new bill expired and MSDFs’ refueling mission officially ended

Dispatch of Refueling Vessels
to the Indian Ocean


external factors
- The 9/11 event and Bush administration’s subsequent call

Internal factors
- The lessons of the 1991 Persian Gulf War
= The Koizumi’s strong popularity at home

Several Factors

Nearly 510,000 Kiloliters of oil
Valued at $300 million
To ships representing 12 nations

Senkaku Islands dispute

Point of the dispute
Why the dispute became so important ?

Diaoyudaos may contatin oil and gas

(The United Nations Economic Commision for Asia and the Far east report, 1969)

Refueling Missions
japanese foreign policy.
A country’s political culture——core values, norms, and identities that are widely shared by its people for an extended period of time——sets parameters for foreign policy.

why the two-party system influence foreign policy?
political parties often take extreme positions in order to differentiate themselves from each other and to win popular support.
What foreign policy DPJ pursues for?
Distance from US
Strengthening ties with Asian countries
Reduce military contributions to some places
Comparing LDP with DPJ about their foreign policy stance:
Depend on US Distance from US
Pro-US position Pro-Asian stance
Put a great deal of military in Iraq and the Indian Ocean Reduce the amount of military in Iraq and the Indian Ocean
Internal factors
1. Emergency of the two-party system
2. Rise of Cabinet
3.Erosion of Pacifism
Rise of the cabinet secretariat:
Rise of the cabinet secretariat
The relative decline of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA)
What’s the role of cabinet secretary
A Cabinet Secretary is usually a senior official
(typically a civil servant) who provides services and advice to a Cabinet of Ministers as part of the Cabinet Office. In many countries, the position can have considerably wider functions and powers, including general responsibility for the entire civil service.
Why this shift happened?
1。Government in Tokyo has often been crippled by
intra-and international turf battles in pursuing optional policies
2.MOFA’s efficiency is so low that many emergencies can’t be responded in time
2001 antiterrorism law
1992 International Peace Cooperation bill
2003 Iraq special measures law
2010 Diaoyutai with China
The disadvantage of the power
of CS be overemphasized:
Many staffers in the CS are “on loan”,
that is, the are temporary staffers
Dealing with the emergency affairs
Constructivist’s view about antimilitarism in Japan
Collective identity-peaceful trading nation+
Common belief-violence does not pay
Theoretically:Country was relatively peaceful+The alliance with the US=Japan’s postwar pacifism
Empirically:UN peacekeeping operations+Enacted numerous defense-related legislation
+Introduced highly sophisticated defense equipment and measure
+Had the SDFs join the US
What can we see behind these
Behind these actions are the shifts in Japanese
perception regarding their national security in light of events:
the rise of China’s military power
North Korea’s nuclear and missile developments
much more willing to see the military play a larger role in the defense of Japan and in maintaining stability of the Asia-Pacific region.
Take much attention to military
Japanese troops are unable to engage in military operations abroad. The duties of the SDFs are strictly limited to noncombatant activities.
(1) Dispatch of Refueling Vessels to the Indian Ocean
(2) The trawler collision incident in the East China Sea
It shows that Japan has also take charge of "War on Terror"
Right of collective self-defense
amendment of constitution
Toward Normal Nation
United states and Japan relations
New environment in the region
Natural disaster and nuclear reactor crisis
The development of the two-party system:
Before 1993:single party dominance-LDP

1993:LDP ended

1994:electoral reform

2009:DPJ assumed power
PS: LDP-Liberal Democratic Party;
DPJ-Democratic Party of Japan
Emergence of the two-party system
The reason for Japanese antimilitarism during the postwar era:
A country’s political culture——core values, norms, and identities that are widely shared by its people for an extended period of time——sets parameters for foreign policy.
Erosion of pacifism:
Why the dispute became so important ?

Diaoyudaos may contatin oil and gas

(The United Nations Economic Commision for Asia and the Far east report, 1969)

Growing instability
in the security environment

by the end of the cold war

by the lack of trust among countries

by a shift in the power balance in asia.

By the end of the cold war
about fishing boat collide in east china sea in 2010 and its meanings
By the lack of trust among countries
By a shift in the power balance in asia
In This context a role of the U.S.
opinion and developments
Greater conversion and integration of Asia economy
Japanese foreign policy affected by
growing regional economic interdependence
Relative decline in Japan's economic stading in the world
The Result of relative decline in Japan's economy
Shigeru Yoshida
Prime Minister of Japan
22 May 1946 – 24 May 1947
15 October 1948 – 10 December 1954

Axis countries
Defeat in
Yoshida Doctrine
Depending on US security guarantees

Focus on Economic Development

Stay light armed
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Midway&Atomic Bomb
Economic Growth
Relation with USA
"trading state"
Relation with Comunist Countries
China USSR
1972 1956
enormous growth
GNP 6,5x grew (1952-1974)
The biggest japanese export market
military dependence
regain sovereignty in 1952
Demilitarization &
- From 1996 to 2005, Intra-Asian trade grew higher than
the world and the intraregional trade growth of EU and NAFTA.
- And Today, the prime driver of intra Asia trade is China not Japan.
EX. From the Asian financial crisis to APEC and FTAs, While the government
is less able to formulate policies against the will for private actors, the role of the private sector in Japan's economic policy making has become quite substantial
EX. The logic of market forces has drawn the two economics closer, but Japan's heavy dependence on China for the market, may backfire when tensions arise between the two countries over a rage of issues including territorial disputes and history problem.
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