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Changes in Architecture during the Industrial Revolution

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Moritz Reuter

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of Changes in Architecture during the Industrial Revolution

Changes in Architecture
Key Questions
How did Architecture change because of the Industrialization?

-Buildings close to the factories
-Exponential growth
-Urbanization
-The need of space

What impact did new materials and new technology have on architecture?
-Before the Industrial Revolution building materials consisted of natural resources and what men made out of them.
How did architecture influence the population?
The population increased when the living conditions got better because of better architecture
What are some of the Architectural feats, which were made during the industrial revolution that we can still see today?
Health care improved with the development of buildings and medical treatment
Food supply and education was better than the other underdeveloped towns and cities in Europe
-From Cottage to High Rise-
The population in England and Wales doubled every 50 years
In Europe the population increased from 1oo million in the 18th century to 400 million by the 20th century
Who were some of the leading architects who developed new structures in the Industrial Revolution?
How did architecture change because of the Industrial Revolution?
What impact did new materials and new technology have on architecture?
How did architecture influence the population?
What are some of the Architectural feats, which were made during the industrial revolution, that we can still see today?
People also moved to bigger cities to find work and feel safer in a better environment
Which leading architects developed what new buildings in the industrial revolution?
Sources
(Kurt) -> Exploring History 1 - (C) 2007
Bildungshaus Schulbuchverlage Westermann Schroedel Disterweg Schöningh Winklers GmBH, Braunschweig
(Moritz Reuter) ->http://science.jrank.org/pages/1073/Building-Design-Architecture-Industrial-Revolution-new-materials.html
-> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#Metallurgy
->http://lzscene.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ironbridge002.jpg
->http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Four_cementation_anglais.jpg
->http://www.google.de/imgres?um=1&newwindow=1&safe=active&client=firefox-a&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:de:official&channel=fflb&hl=de&biw=980&bih=605&tbm=isch&tbnid=ak3uZ6kc-3XXQM:&imgrefurl=http://pgapworld.wikispaces.com/Doric,%2BIonic,%2Band%2BCorinthian&docid=m03p1Oqj5fh8wM&imgurl=http://pgapworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/doric_ionic_corinthian.jpg/39518350/doric_ionic_corinthian.jpg&w=350&h=238&ei=bxQCUp6lLo3JOb2egIgM&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=437&vpy=221&dur=578&hovh=185&hovw=272&tx=149&ty=110&page=1&tbnh=131&tbnw=181&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:91
http://www.google.de/imgres?um=1&newwindow=1&safe=active&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:de:official&channel=fflb&hl=de&biw=980&bih=605&tbm=isch&tbnid=W1My6BIM59ydaM:&imgrefurl=http://web.uvic.ca/~bloomen/stannswebsite/index/architects/architecturestyles/beauxarts.html&docid=bnkL0fMR6sd9fM&imgurl=http://web.uvic.ca/~bloomen/stannswebsite/index/architects/architecturestyles/images/entablatures.png&w=250&h=282&ei=vxQCUo3FPIKxO82IgYAO&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=406&vpy=105&dur=529&hovh=225&hovw=200&tx=112&ty=112&page=1&tbnh=138&tbnw=126&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0,i:121
->http://www.google.de/imgres?um=1&newwindow=1&safe=active&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:de:official&channel=fflb&hl=de&biw=980&bih=605&tbm=isch&tbnid=NipBaFjLBtgoUM:&imgrefurl=http://ballerinaaccountantinteriordesigner.blogspot.com/2011_02_01_archive.html&docid=cEi1UsXI-E75nM&imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_iOBQjIcIyU8/TU1_CRk2nPI/AAAAAAAAAKk/CM_JPiiCKnY/s1600/La_Madeleine_Pediment.jpg&w=1600&h=964&ei=GRUCUp3NKYHeOrnHgMgD&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=138&vpy=225&dur=565&hovh=174&hovw=289&tx=143&ty=75&page=1&tbnh=132&tbnw=198&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:83
-> http://pgapworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/doric_ionic_corinthian.jpg/39518350/doric_ionic_corinthian.jpg
->http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/Big_ben_closeup.jpg
->http://www.aboutparisvacations.com/images/big/madeleine.jpg
->http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ElsmXSFmU7E/UFYlTHjPWzI/AAAAAAAAA6w/tndHREEkEnY/s400/tudor2.jpeg
->http://ncpedia.org/sites/default/files//state_capitol.jpg
->http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/year9/industrialrevolution/images/Street1a.jpg
->http://www.canadianbusiness.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/b66be69743ebbaf58745fd4340d1.jpeg
->http://images01.olx.ie/ui/9/45/63/1288370608_133044263_2-Pictures-of--Connemara-Premium-Building-Stone-We-Sell-Stonecom-1288370608.jpg
->http://www.miningne.ws/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/iron-ore.jpg
->http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cast-Iron-Pan.jpg
->http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wrought_iron_railing.jpg
->http://www.noosametalfabrication.com/pages/materials.php
->http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Reverberatory_furnace_diagram.png/250px-Reverberatory_furnace_diagram.png
-->http://nazmiyalantiquerugs.com/blog/2011/09/wrought-iron-decor/
->http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3545/3302575894_227d60e79c.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrialisation
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/619445/urban-planning/10805/The-era-of-industrialization
http://www.eriding.net/media/photos/history/saltaire/041022_rfoster_mp_his_saltaire0051.jpg
->
Thomas Farnolls Pritchard = The Iron Bridge
Joseph Paxton = Crystal Palace
Gustav Eiffel = Eiffel Tower
-Ionic and Doric columns
-Entablatures
-Pediments
-The Church of Madeleine
-Greek revival
-Gothic
-Tudor Revival
Isambard Kingdom Brunel = Paddington station
Paddington station
Urban Planning
Metals were rare and impossible to get in larger quantities or in good enough quality for construction work.
1800
1900
825,000 Tons
40 Million Tons
Yet with the industrialization in the textile industry with its new machines, this helped other industries to experiment and search for new ways of production and the development of new materials.

For construction, Iron was available in three forms:
-Cast iron
-Wrought iron
-Steel
In architecture this meant the progression in metallurgy for stronger, purer and cleaner metals for the building industry.
The advance in railroads drove this explosion in the development of iron and steel.
These new materials would also be used for decorative elements, internal structures or building facades.
Saltaire
-Big Ben
-Notre Dame

- Cottage like House
-Roman Revival
-Large Temple
-Paris
-USA
-Important Townhouses
-Public Buildings
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