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Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

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by

Matt Lane

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

Kingdom of Ghana
First great trading state in West Africa - A.D. 500.
Located in the Upper Niger River Valley
Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Matt Lane, Riley Stephens
Kingdom of Mali
Mali was the greatest trading state following Ghana's fall.
People There
They built their powerful kingdom through the trade of salt and gold.
Farmers,
Lived in Villages
Were under authority - Local Rulers
These villages made up the kingdom of Ghana
Meaning "hippopotamus" or "Where the king resides"
Ruled by rich kings with tons of money. Amongst these Sundiata and Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa
Kings in Ghana
Made the devoted Muslim journey to Makkah.
Strong rulers who governed without any laws.
Ran the kingdom, and the wealth.
-Ghanaian kings relied on a well-trained soldiers.
Al-Bakri- Eleventh-century Muslim traveler who wrote of the Ghanian king's court.

Ghanaian Economy
Focused around Gold mining, iron ore, agriculture, and trade
Traded with North Africa
Salt was a highly desired resource
Berbers
- Group of nomadic peoples who used camel caravan to trade across the desert.
- As many as a 100 camels would be used.
One of the most rich and powerful kings of Mali
These trading merchants often became wealthy.
Last powerful ruler of Mali
Sundiata Keita
Caravans
These caravans were loaded with goods and supplies
Could move at up to 3 miles per hour
A Journey often took 40 to 60 days to complete its journey
Sundiata Keita was disabled and unable to walk. With hard and painful work he finally gained the ability to walk.
Kingdom of Songhai
Life in the Kingdom
People lived off land for centuries
Iron and gold helped them prosper
Blacksmiths were highly valued
-This was because they could make tools and weapons.
He was exiled when his half-brother became ruler. Along with his mother, Sundiata fled and would later become ruler of a village and raise an army.
Gold
Heart of Ghana was located near a rich gold mine.
Gold made Ghana the center of a great trade empire.
With his army he marched into Susu and killed their king, this bravery gained him favors to become "munsa" or king
Iron ore
Had multiple uses
-Tools for use and trade
- Weapons for use and trade
Agriculture
Had iron tools and fertile soil.
Growing food allowed other parts of the economy to grow
Trade
Mostly traded with Muslim Merchants
Traded iron and gold for salt, metal goods, horses, and textiles
Established along the Niger River due to its flooding and rich soil deposit.
Al-Bakri
Sundiata Keita
Means "hungering lion"
He was nicknamed the Lion King of Mali
The trans-Saharan trade route was Mali's main source of income . It provided the region with rich trade and powerful rulers.
The great Mosque of Djenne, built out of mud for weary traveler's who wished to speak with god.
Got gold from the south and salt from the North.
Used fishing as their main source of trade.
Big fishing community
Traded fish for goods they needed
Songhai used to be part of Mali, but were very independent and Mali let them be that way because they needed the fish.
Along with fish, the following items were used for trade
Gold
Salt
Kola Nuts
Slaves

Imports included
Textile
Horses
Luxury Goods
Books were important to the people of Songhai and were often bargained for.
Sonni Ali The Great
Was a great ruler of Songhai.
Led the army into numerous cities, conquering one after the other.
Helped make Songhai very powerful and the largest kingdom stretching over 2,000 miles
Trans-Saharan Trade route
Kola Nuts

Works cited
www.ushistory.org/civ/7a.asp
www.thenagain.info/webchron/africa/Mali.html
www.sahistory.org.za/topic/songhai-african-empire-15-16th-century
Spielvogel, J. (2010)
Glencoe world history. (Indiana ed).
Full transcript