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Landmark court cases

9 landmark court cases

Scott Roller

on 18 March 2011

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Transcript of Landmark court cases

Marbury v Madison President John Adams on his last day in office appointed 82 judges The problem with this was before the judges could sign their commission to get their job the next president had legally taken office. So the judge who didn't
get his job decided to sue.
Due to a loophole...
the judge ruled the
Judiciary Act of 1789
After this case, the Supreme Court
was given the right of
the right to declare a law UNCONSTITUTIONAL
Gideon v Wainwright Gideon an ex con was a poor man
who was accused of breaking into
a pool hall.
Gideon requested a lawyer but was DENIED. He
was forced to defend himself and guess what...
When Gideon was arrested the courts only provided
lawyers to people who were charged with serious felonies such as:
murder, rape, etc.
He eventually hand wrote a
letter to the Supreme Court
requesting a fair trial.
The Supreme Court ruled that Gideon
WAS NOT given a fair trial.
Because of this case: Everyone is now
given a lawyer even if they can not afford one
McCulloch v Maryland Many national banks were created during President Madison's tenure in office. Maryland tried to close the national bank
by passing a law that forced all banks created outside the state to pay a $15,000 TAX
James McCulloch the manager of
the bank refused to pay the tax and
was thrown in jail.
McCulloch sued Maryland and his case
went to the Supreme Court.
Ruling: A state does not have the right
to tax a federal institution.
Reason 1: Creating a bank is under the
"Necessary and proper clause"
Reason 2: Supremacy Clause: When a national
Law and a state law conflict; national law wins!
Miranda v Arizona Ernesto Miranda was arrested for kidnapping and rape

Ernesto Miranda was arrested for kidnapping and rape

Miranda was questioned for two hours but was intimidated by police. He was unaware that he had the right to be silent Miranda appealed to the Supreme Court saying his rights had been violated Because of this case we have what is known as our "Miranda Rights:" they are:
You have the right to remain silent, anything you say can, and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed for you.
Mapp v Ohio Police looking for bomb fugitive knock on Mapp's door, ask to search, Mrs. Mapp says: "NO" Police storm house 3 hrs later, show a fake warrant. Mrs. Mapp keeps the fake warrant to show to her lawyer. Police find XXX materials in house basement, and arrest her for obscene materials. (a crime in Ohio at time) Due to this case: Illegally obtained evidence can't be used in court... (due process applies to states to!) This case dealt with: 4th amendment: Search and Seizure
14th: Equal protection under law
Plessey v Ferguson Homer Plessey boarded a train and sat in a "white only" car. (Jim Crow laws in south were in effect, segregation legal) Homer Plessey boarded a train and sat in a "white only" car. (Jim Crow laws in south were in effect, segregation legal) Plessey was arrested at next train stop In court Plessey claims he was not given equal treatment (what amendment is this?)
He is convicted in state court; the case gets appealed to the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court upheld the decision. This means the judges believed it was legal to arrest Homer Plessey One of the darkest Supreme Court decisions in US History. It legalized segregation. Made Separate but equal stay legal.
This case also dealt with 14th Amendment:
Equal Protection under law
Brown v Board of Education Linda Brown and a group of African American students sue the board of education to be able to attend white schools. Oliver Brown asked the NAACP to ensure that his daughter was able to go to the best school possible. Thurgood Marshall claimed that the segregation of schools was against the 14th amendment: equal protection under the law. The precedent of separate but equal was established previously with Plessey v Ferguson The Supreme Court overturned the precedent and claimed that "in the eyes of the law, justice was colorblind. Integration of the US had started and the Civil Rights Movement had begun Tinker v Des Moines The Tinkers decide to wear black armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War. School find out, says anyone wearing black armbands will be suspended. The Tinkers wear them anyway and are suspended. The Tinker parents sue the school saying it is a violation of freedom of speech. Courts ruled that students could wear the armbands, but more importantly… Schools have the right to tell students what to wear if it affects the learning environment New Jersey v TLO TLO caught smoking in girl’s bathroom- she denied this TLO was searched in principal’s office- find marijuana and list of names, list of names, cash Arrested, charged and convicted. Appeals top supreme court for illegal search Supreme Court had to decide: whether search was legal to be done in school DECISION: against TLO. Remains guilty Impact of Decision/Precedent Set: Schools are give the right to search students if they have “reasonable suspicion”
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