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Week 1 - Understanding the Beginning of U.S. Government
Transcript of Week 1 - Understanding the Beginning of U.S. Government
Articles of Confederation
The Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation during the Revolutionary War. The articles were written to give the colonies some sense of a unified government. Once the thirteen colonies became the thirteen states, however, each one began to act alone in its own best interest. A new governing document was needed in order for these new states to act together, to become a nation.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first governing document of the United States. It was written in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in November 1777. Although it was used in practice from then on, it wasn't finally ratified until 1781!
It purposely created a weak national government (thanks to the popular fear of central authority), but the system proved inadequate. There was no federal executive and no judicial system. Instead, there was a only a Congress, in which each of the 13 states had one vote. Passing a law required nine votes. Since the states had such different interests, getting nine to agree on anything was next to impossible. Even when laws did manage to pass, Congress had no way of enforcing them! That meant they couldn't collect taxes, either.
The Articles of Confederation were replaced by the much stronger United States Constitution, which was ratified in June, 1788. The Constitution was written with the weaknesses and failures of the Articles of Confederation in mind, which helped it to form a "more perfect Union."
Most governments are based on a written set of principles, sometimes called a "constitution" or a "charter." When citizens directly participate by voting, the government is called a "democracy."
During America's first 150 years, most of the settlers came from Great Britain. Along America's Atlantic coast, these colonists built settlements that became what are commonly called the
"Original Thirteen Colonies."
The British settlers lived under the rule of the
King of England
. They worked hard building homes, farms and towns, even though they did not own these places. The settlers worked so hard that they wanted to be involved in making decisions about their lives and property.
The British knew that the colonists wanted independence. But the British, instead, tried to take more control of the colonists.
By the mid-1770s, King George III and the British government taxed everyday goods, such as tea
. Colonists resented the imposition of these revenue measures for the Crown and objected to British interference with their commercial practices.
The Revolutionary War broke out on April 19, 1775, at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
By the time the Second Continental Congress met in May 1775 to discuss stronger action for independence, tensions in the American colonies ran very high. Colonists who did not wish to remain British subjects declared themselves "Patriots" -- those who remained faithful to England called themselves "Loyalists."
On June 11, 1776, the Second Continental Congress appointed a committee of five men to write a Declaration of Independence from British Rule. Those five men were Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Jefferson wrote the first draft. The committee declared it to be almost perfect. The committee presented the document to the Congress after making a few corrections. Following a few more changes, Thomas Jefferson's work was approved. Church bells rang out on July 4, 1776, the day the Declaration of Independence was adopted and our nation was officially born.
The Declaration of Independence has five parts. They are the Preamble, the Statement of Human Rights, Charges Against Human Rights, Charges Against the King and Parliament, and the Statement of Separation and Signatures.
The main purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to announce the colonies separation from England. It also stated the principles that were the foundation for seeking independence.
The Declaration of Independence states that all men are created equal and are entitled to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." These ideas would be expressed again in the new republic's Constitution. These ideas form the basis of our beliefs about the role of our government in our lives today.
The Constitutional Convention met for 4 months. The 55 delegates were seldom all together at once because the weather was bad and travel was difficult. About 35 delegates were present during the process of writing the Constitution.
How it relates to Texas
Seven Principles of Democracy
Checks and Balances
Separation of Powers
Texas-U.S. Constitution Similarities
Branches of Government
Bill of Rights (i.e. free speech, press)
Process of Amending
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments
Number of Amendments
Number of Constitutions
6th (Prior Knowledge Vocabulary)
Checks and balances
Separation of powers
Point of view
Special interest groups
Below the questions in the spiral, write down the following:
Weakness in the Articles of Confederation
How the weakness is addressed in the Constitution?
Where the weakness is addressed in the Constitution?
Is your spiral write down questions you have concerning this video. Video starts at 2:20 section
Understanding the different documents
Who is John Locke ?
What you need to know in 8th grade
What is the Judicial Review / John Marshall?
The Founding Fathers
Page 19 in ISN
1. Who drafted the Declaration of Independence?
2. What was his main job in writing this document?
3. List 3 important ideas in the Declaration of Independence.
Page 20 Identifying Primary Sources
How did they get here?
What other items were taxed
and why did this lead to war?
Are you smarter than these people ?
What's on the 9 weeks Test - Write down items in red
Week of September 29
Review over Geography Test
Pre-Ap After the sources are documented and have an annotation, on a new document begin the process paper to help with the final project.
A process paper is a description of no more than 500 words explaining how you conducted your research and created and developed your entry. You must conclude your description with an explanation of the relationship of your topic to the contest theme.
A title page is required as the first page of written material in every category. Your title page must include only the title of your entry, your name(s) and the contest division and category in which you are entered. Do not include your age, grade or school name.
The first section should explain how you chose your topic.
The second section should explain how you conducted your research.
The third section should explain how you selected your presentation category and created your project.
The fourth section should explain how your project relates to the NHD theme.
MLA and Process paper both due on November 19. Separate Major Grades
Test Questions that you will see again
Human Environment Interactions - Positive Statements
Comparisons between Regions
Cause and Effects of Spindletop
Geography and Famous Events
Rivers of Texas
Locations of Mountains
Texas rank in Population and Size
Make 2 column notes by folding pg 16 in half
Left Column - Words you know
Right Column - Words you don't know
A constitution is like a cars' owner
If there is an issue / trouble, this is
where you would look.
To find out issue or requirements
for a government, you would look in
People - Pg 17 - Pick a person and give a brief biography of why they are important inTexas / U.S.
(Example - Who are they, What did they accomplish in politics, When they were in office, Where are they from and Why are they important - in your own words)
Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross
John Nance Garner ("Cactus Jack")
James A. Baker III
Henry B. González
Kay Bailey Hutchison
Raymond L. Telles
Raul A. Gonzalez Jr.
Lyndon B. Johnson
George W. Bush
November Elections - New Officials in the Executive Branch
to the shift to the Constitution from the Articles of Confederation
set up a fair and equitable system of laws
Citizens were worried with the keeping peace within the country's borders
- Refer to Shays Rebellion
No individual state had the power to defend itself against attacks
well-being of the citizens would be taken care of as well as possible by the Federal government.
the constitution as a whole was to help protect the country's hard-earned rights for liberty, unjust laws, and freedom from a tyrannical government.
Write down in page 18 of ISN
Bonus Points if you answer and explain
Hint: #1 Think about the students from the movie clip.
#2 Look at the root word of Declaration and explain the definition
#3 Why were they fighting, think about the Bill of Rights (A principle of Democracy)
What is the Great Compromise?
Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented
Delegates suffered from a terrible heat wave—they were even hotter because they kept all the windows closed so everything would be kept secret!
George Washington elected
President of the Convention
Primary Source - Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 was James Madison's record of the daily debates held by delegates at the Philadelphia Convention.
Did you know
Roger Sherman and Robert Morris were the only individuals to sign the Declaration of. Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution