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THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

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Marcelo Riveros

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
BEHAVIOURISM
Key words:
Imitation
Practice
Stimulus-response
Reinforcement
Habit formation
Rewarding & punishment
Environmental importance
INNATISM
Key words:
Language acquisition device
Critical Period
Input is a trigger to activate innate knowledge.
Universal Grammar (Chomsky)
Neurological module. (LAD)
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Attention is limited according to the amount of information.
Importance of noticing.
Automaticity develops through practice.
Non-mechanical practice.
Conscious attention & unaware attention are the main sources of information.
INTERACTIONISM
Opportunities to interact (Conversational interaction)
Modified input (input +1)
Input from immediate environment
Innate capacities
Expansion of children’s utterances and negotiation of meaning as an important source for language acquisition.
COGNITIVISM Recent Psychological Theories
Learners form "associations" between words, objects and events giving as a result strong experiences through repetition. It is appropriate to mention the important role of the environment during these "associative instances or experiences"
CONNECTIONISM
Importance of the role of the environment.
The exposure to several instances of the linguistic features is the principal source of linguistic knowledge (input).
The learning mechanism not only allows to learn but also to generalize what is heard (overgeneralization)
According to Chomsky's point of view, human beings are biologically programmed to develop LA. Due to this, a subject is able to figure out meaning or structures never heard before during a specific period of time (critical period)
The role of noticing in SLA deals with a conscious process inside the learner's mind suggesting that learners can restructure and develop changes in skill and knowledge of the target language.
Connectionists do not consider necessary the existence of a neurological module exclusively designed for LA, arguing that learners build up knowledge through input. The greater frequency of repetition, the more connections are made in the brain.
Interactionists noticed how native speakers tend to modify their speech in conversations with non-native speakers to give them chances not only to understand but also to interact (input/output). This is similar to a little child that acquires L1 from his/her mother while she makes input more comprehensible to favor the learning and acquisition of the language through repetition, simplification, gestures, etc.
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