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Transcript of QM 2011
making sense of / interpreting phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them the choice of research practices: the "how to" | with epistemological & ontological assumptions how does academic research differ from e.g. journalism, activism or development work? qualitative research is by nature multimethod and choices of how research is conducted cannot be set in advance fully: the choice of research practices depends on the questions that are asked and the questions depend on the context. ...social sciences, behavioural sciences, educational sciences... natural sciences ..etc. positivism / post-positivism / neo-positivism post-colonial / post-modern / post-humanist causality, laws, regularities ? The classic case of
a mouse under the table.
* * *
does truth always matter? (whose truth?)
is there pure, objective truth?
can we know about it? (how?)
can we convey true knowledge? RQs what kind? why? how? in what way?
Are problem students good in arts?
What kind of teacher behaviour causes best learning results? why are these
questions? research questions data production analysis & interpretation previous
research Research design rule #1: FIT FOR PURPOSE ethnography
critical theories postmodernism
posthumanism patterns, meanings, interpretations reflection, problem solving, emancipation, deconstruction TO PREDICT TO UNDERSTAND TO EMANCIPATE TO DECONSTRUCT Aims, methods and concepts of natural sciences can be applied to social sciences
Reality is knowable and observable
We can come up with laws that are universal and with which we can govern behaviour
There are facts that are value free and objective
A priori (before) theory and procedures
"test and confirm" experiments
"natural methods" FIND / EXPLAIN CONSTRUCT / CHANGE KNOWLEDGE What is?
Does social reality exist (as objective)?
Can we know about it?
What can we know?
How can we know?
(Are there different ways of knowing?) EXISTENCE OBJECTIVISM, REALISM
the world exists as an objective
entity, outside of the mind of
the observer, and in principle it is
knowable in its entirety. the task
of the researcher is to describe and
analyse this reality. OBJECTIVISM,
reality is objective (external to human minds) but it is only imperfectly knowable. there is a real material world but our knowledge is often socially conditioned and subject to reinterpretation. OBJECTIVISM AND SUBJECTIVISM
reality is objective but it is the human
mind that puts order into it. since human beings are 'meaningful' actors we must discover the meanings that motivate their actions rather than the universal laws external to the actors. SUBJECTIVISM
human behaviour is always filtered by the subjective understandings of external reality. knowing the reality is therefore impossible. objective knowledge is impossible. There exists a vaccination for HIV. humanist / interpretivist / phenomenological-hermeneutic critical theory / radical humanist ANALYSE & INTERPRET MOTIVATION AND CONTRIBUTION
exposing to general public for the sake of creating opinions and discussion
(someone do something!)
exposing to academic community for the sake of advancing scientific understanding
through systematic production of new knowledge
(let's find out what it is that we need to do!) How can we save the bird (the sea, the fish...)? How can we stop this ship and other ships from leaking oil? How is this possible in our society in the first place?
(should we do something? what?) How do humans co-exist with non-human nature? UTILISING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE UTILIZING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE PRODUCING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE PRODUCING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE People refuse to take it. imagine how would you begin to try and understand this? frequences, averages, percentages, ratios, probabilities... interviews, text, stories, journals, observations, documents... interviews, archival materials, documents, discourses, media, meta-data, multisensory data... domain analysis
statistical analyses discourse analysis
rhizoanalysis research's relation to practice is to describe and interpret the practice, sometimes negotiate and transform it
researcher is a detached observer, a participating member or an interpreter
aim of research is to DESCRIBE: cultural characteristics
individual's meaning making and/or experiences
values and beliefs
socially constructed views of a phenomenon
the essence of a phenomenon
participants' lifeworlds or to UNDERSTAND holistically and cyclically participants experiences or a phenomenon in question practical conceptual research's relation to practice is to change and transform practice
researcher is active, political and an advocate
aim of research is to ADDRESS INEQUITIES in order to emancipate, produce sociopolitical critique and to promote change in society/communities
central features include an approach to knowledge according to which all theories are perspectival, an interest towards operations of power, and political and ideological interests research's relation to practice is to deconstruct, transform and rebuild practice
researcher is active, involved, constructive and political
aim of research is to DECONSTRUCT AND RE-CREATE grand narratives, binaries and stable structures, colonial practices, sociopolitical discourses
key characteristics include the deconstruction of traditional commitments to truth, objectivity and neutrality * * * results, conclusions NEW WAYS OF THINKING FIRST GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL How does first grade situate within a school's culture?
How do teachers describe their work throughout the first year?
Of what kind are the socialisation processes that take place?
How do children experience being first-graders?
How do teachers understand the beginning of school life? FIRST GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL How many children can read when entering first grade?
What are the factors influencing advanced reading skills?
What are the teaching methods that correlate with
students' good results in math exams?
Does parental involvement influence student
achievement? FIRST YEAR OF PRIMARY SCHOOL How are gender roles generated in primary school?
Who excercise power, and how, during recess in school?
Who defines what challenging student behaviour is?
How does school begin to reproduce social hierarchies? FIRST YEAR OF PRIMARY SCHOOL What are the justifications produced in favor of institutionalised
What are the modes of colonisation taking place in primary school?
How and by whom is the binary "good student" vs.
"bad student" constructed?
How do children emerge as part of the materiality of school life? Course assignment: 3-5 page essay on one of the visiting lectures
compose the text with an academic style
use references, cite correctly
do not settle with merely describing the lecture, rather engage with the theme using your own thinking
Deadline: December 28th, 2011
Feedback: Only for those who submit by the deadline. Written personal feedback by January 10th, 2012 how to combine own thinking with theory
discussion | arguments | grounded beliefs and opinions you researcher A researcher B researcher C THEORY B phenomenon /
research focus THEORY A THEORY C IMAGINE AS IF A REAL ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION WAS TAKING PLACE!
PROVIDE A CLEAR AND CONCISE REPORT OF
THE DISCUSSION AND BASE YOUR OWN STAND
ON THE PHENOMENON ON THE VARIOUS THEORIES
AND ARGUMENTS PROVIDED NB
Jane Bennett (2010): crudely three major pendulum moves in mainstream science (both natural and social sciences)
1. empirical reality --> 2. anthropocentric reality --> 3. intra-agential material reality FOCUS ON BIOPHYSICAL REALITY AND ITS CAUSALITIES FOCUS ON HUMANS AS UNIQUE AND INEXPLAINABLE MEANING-MAKERS FOCUS ON MATERIAL REALITY IN WHICH HUMANS ARE ONE TYPE OF COMPLEX ENTITY AMONG OTHERS VISITORS
Elina Määttä - Audiovisual data in qualitative research
Minna Uitto - Narrative approach to qualitative research
Vanessa Andreotti - Post-colonialism and qualitative research
Jani Koskela - Phenomenology and philosophical inquiry
Jaana Pesonen - Discourse analysis in qualitative research
Maija Lanas - Reflective ethnography and qualitative research