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Copy of Beauty Therapy Level 2

All things beauty!
by

cece terri

on 19 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Beauty Therapy Level 2

How the body works in relation to beauty Anatomy and physiology Body Skin Bones Muscles Body Body Body Functions Appendages Layers Body Body Face There are 2 lacrimal bones that form the inner part of the eye orbit and part of the nasal passages. They house the tear ducts and these link to the nasal passages. Lacrimal These 2 bones form the bridge of the nose. Nasal There are 2 zygomatic bones and these form the cheek bones. Zygomatic bones There are 2 maxilla bones and these form the upper jaw and soft palate of the mouth. Maxilla This is the lower jaw bone and is the only moveable bone in the face. Mandible There is only 1 occipital bone and it is located at the back of the skull. Occipital There is only 1 sphenoid bone and it forms part of the eye orbit and connects the skull to the face. Sphenoid There are 2 temporal bones each found at the side of the head, around the ears. Temporal There is only one frontal bone and it forms the forehead and upper eye sockets. Frontal There are 2 parietal bones, one on each side of the skull. They form the main part of the top and back of the head. Parietal Simon says………………… Bones of the shoulder girdle, neck and chest Bones of the skull Bones of the face The skeleton has 3 main functions:

1. Protects the internal organs.
2. Gives the body its shape.
3. Used for muscle attachment. Skeleton NVQ Level 2 facial treatments Bones of the Skull and Shoulder Girdle Bones of the skull and face Task
Label the diagram of the skull and face. Ethmoid Lacrimal Sphenoid Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Mandible Temporal
Frontal Parietal Occipital There is one ethmoid bone and it connects the skull to the face, houses the nerves of the eyes and separates the nasal passages. Ethmoid Task
Label the diagram of the shoulder girdle Bones of the shoulder girdle Ribs Clavicle Scapula Cervical vertebrae
Sternum Humerus Maxilla Ethmoid Lacrimal Nasal Sphenoid Frontal Mandible Zygomatic Temporal Occipital Parietal Bones of the skull and face Click on the label with the mouse to find out more about each bone Ethmoid Lacrimal Sphenoid Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Mandible Temporal
Frontal Parietal Occipital You can suddenly develop a reaction to a product you have been using for years.
Most reactions occur within 12-24 of exposure.
Sometimes your skin can become acclimatised to the product and no longer react. Allergic reactions Allergic Reactions http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/clothing/pictures/footbinding.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/clothing/&usg=__jat81LYj1-mY2baK0cFkRQdkLT8=&h=501&w=560&sz=109&hl=en&start=4&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=KDiCuj87iVUd7M:&tbnh=119&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfoot%2Bbinding%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1 Foot Binding Deformity of the joint of the foot. Can be caused by wearing incorrect and ill fitting shoes. Bunions Can appear on top or underneath the foot. Caused by pressure and wearing incorrect or ill fitting shoes. Corns Corns Corns Very common. Often there is a hereditary link within families. Skin tags Skin tags Please answer the questions on skin diseases and disorders. Unknown condition that may be linked to genetics or stress. Looks slightly different to eczema as it forms in plaques- small contained areas often surrounded by a ring of inflamed tissue.
Medication can help but the condition cannot be cured. Psoriasis Dermatitis found over area suffering with varicose viens. Varicose Dermatitis Varicose Dermatitis http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.frickmeout.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/1211606.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.frickmeout.com/&usg=__o_LA0F_naF4dZAfK1chm6YbOXWo=&h=500&w=410&sz=30&hl=en&start=5&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=J-UN8gOvVCZ8nM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=107&prev=/images%3Fq%3DDermatitis%2Bafter%2Ban%2Baccident%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26tbs%3Disch:1 Traumatic Dermatitis Sensation Dermatitis http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/09/01/48hours/main229968.shtml Sensation Dermatitis Dermatitis caused by something you are exposed to during your working hours.
Hairdressers often suffer with this condition and some may even leave the industry because of it. Occupational/ Industrial dermatitis A reaction to a substance or product that has a more pronounced reaction including itching, peeling, and flaking of the skin. May require medical treatment to prevent secondary infections from scratching. Exfoliative Dermatitis Exfoliative dermatitis Non infectious. Can happen to anyone- it is a reaction to a substance you have touched or used. Dermatitis Dermatitis Occupational Ezcema Usually caused by a food/ medication allergy. Allergic Eczema Allergic Eczema Sometimes eczema can appear around the eye in adults that are run down or stressed. Eczema Eczema found in children. Sometimes children can grow out of this condition.

In older children/ adults stress can bring on an outbreak of eczema. Atopic Eczema Dry, itchy skin condition that is not infectious. Usually eczema is a dry condition although sometimes the skin can weep lymph. When this happens the eczema is referred to as wet.
The exact cause is unknown although there is a strong genetic link. Eczema Eczema Please answer the questions on Rosacea and Acne. Inflamed skin condition caused by overactive sebum production. The sebum becomes trapped in the hair follicle and breeds bacteria that can cause secondary infections that can cause pustule and papule formations, inflammation and redness and spread to other sebaceous glands , making this condition very hard to treat. Acne Vulgaris Acne Vulgaris Acne A non infectious chronic inflammatory condition caused by dilated blood capillaries. Can cause swelling of the area effected . Rosacea Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Malignant Melanoma Malignant Melanoma Least common of type of cancer, usually found on the skin but can be found on the eye (uveal melanoma).
It is the cause of 75% of skin cancer related deaths.
Can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Malignant Melanoma http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-video.html Malignant Melanoma http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/skin_cancer.html Skin Cancers. Excessive sweating caused by the nervous system.
1% of the population is effected by this disorder.
Can be contained to just the hands, armpits and feet or all over the body.
Treatment is available, medication, products, creams, surgery-even Botox has been used. Hyperidrosis Sweat is absent from the body.
Usually effects older people.
Can cause sufferers to overheat, especially after exercising. Anidrosis Smelly sweat! Bromidrosis and Osmidrosis Disorders due to sweat glands Please answer the questions on skin disorders. Erythema Telengiectasia Spider Naevus Papillomoas Neavus Ephilides Liver spots Please complete the questions on skin colour disorders. Stains Patches of skin with no pigmentation.
Can occur at any age in both men and women.
Can begin in small patches and form very large areas.
No cure and usually permanent.
Usually found on areas that are exposed to the sun-face, arm, chest. Vitiligo Famously claimed to have vitiligo Vitiligo Vitiligo Albinism Albinism Albinism Albinism Sometimes called “the mask of pregnancy”.
Usually appears over the butterfly area of the face-bridge of nose and cheeks- although can be found anywhere on the face.
Thought to be caused by female hormones and associated with pregnancy. Chloasma Usually found at birth.
Can sometimes disappear in infancy. Strawberry mark Strawberry mark After Laser Treatment Before laser treatment Treatment of Port Wine Stains Usually found on the face, neck, shoulders or chest.
Caused by dilated capillaries changing the colour of the area it affects.
Congenital defect present at birth.
Laser treatment can sometimes be successful on smaller areas. Port Wine stain (Heamangioma) Port Wine stain (Heamangioma) Disorders of skin colour Please answer the questions on Sebaceous gland disorders. The skin stops producing sebum leaving the epidermis prone to cracking and chapping.
Sometimes refereed to as the Winter Itch- although this can happen in any season. Asteatosis Asteatosis Milia Comedones / blackheads Sebaceous Steatoma Over active sebaceous gland. Can affect face, neck, décolleté and chest.

Gives skin a shiny, greasy look.
Can lead to enlarged pores to let more sebum out. Seborrhoea Seborrhoea Disorders of the sebaceous gland Please answer the questions on insect infestations. Caused by Itch mites- not lice. Scabies Pediculosis Pubis Body lice on leg and sock Often associated with overcrowding, poor hygiene and poverty.
Feed on humans but do not have to live on them- commonly found on clothing and only transferring to humans to feed.
Red marks can be seen where the lice bite the skin.
Slightly bigger than a head louse.
Related to bedbugs that live in sheets and only feed on humans. Pediculosus Corporis Pediculosus Corporis Head lice.
The lice attach their eggs to the hair shaft and hatch. They bite the scalp to drink the blood which leads to itching and scratching.
The action of itching the skin can cause secondary bacterial infections. Pediculosis Capitis Pediculosis Capitis Pediculosis Pubis Body lice Pediculosis Corporis
Slightly larger than a head louse Head lice- the largest
Pediculosis Captis Infestation of lice.
Lice cannot be caught from other species such as pets.
Lice cannot jump or fly.
Head lice will die within two days if not on a host so are rarely alive in carpets ect.
There are actually 3 types of lice. Pediculosis This is a condition where humans are infested with small parasites. Depending on the type of infestation some parasites live on the host and some burrow underneath the skin of it's host.
The condition is very contagious and can be passed onto others through direct contact with an infected person, or an infected persons belongings. Insect infections Insect infections Please answer the questions on viral infections… Verruccas are found on the soles of the feet. Verruca Plantaris Verruca Plantaris Warts can be clustered or singular.


Commonly found on hands but can be found on face, body and limbs. Warts- verucca vulgaris Warts- verucca vulgaris Often called shingles.

Very painful as it inflames the pathway of your sensory nerves un the back and spine.
Can sometimes leave a scar. Herpes Zoster Herpes Zoster Herpes Simplex Viral infections Viruses are tiny beings too small to see with a microscope.
They are considered to be parasites as they need living tissue to survive.
They are so small that the virus actually multiplies within a cell. The cell then breaks and spreads the virus to other cells and spreading the viral infection. Viral infections Please answer the question on Fungal infections. Usually found on the body/ truck although can be found on arms and legs.
Patches are originally red or pink and then turn white.

Can cause problems with pigmentation in future. Pityriasis Versicolor ( Tinea Vericolor) Pityriasis Versicolor ( American spelling of colour) Fungal infection of the facial beards through the hair follicles.

Cause swelling and inflammation of the hair follicle and surrounding tissue.
Can form weeping, oozing blisters and redness. Tinea Barbae Tinea Barbae Ringworm of the body ( body is also known as corpse).

Characterised by red, scaly, circular, rings over the skin.
Can be found on trunk and limbs. Tinea Corporis Ringworm in the scalp.

Can cause damage to hair folliclices leading to loss of hair in areas.
Causes brittle hair that snaps off easily. Tinea Captitis Tinea Captitis Tinea Pedis/ athletes foot Very infectious. Can be spread through direct contact with an infected person, indirect through towels, clothing ect and even through animals.

Called Ringworm because of the distinctive ring shapes swelling that occurs with this infection. Ringworm ( Tinea) Ringworm ( Tinea) Its not actually a worm! Ringworm (Tinea) Fungi can attack the surface of the skin or deeper tissue if they can enter through broken or damaged skin.
Fungal infections on the skin usually look like itchy, red patches and sometimes even blisters.
These infections are usually- but not always found in warm, damp, dark places on the body (like between the toes). Fungal infections Fungi are microscopic plants.

They are parasites and use human and animal bodies as host to feed them.

Diseases caused by fungi can digest dead tissue (like athlete's foot) or feed on living tissue (like pityriasis-versi colour). Fungal infections Staphylococcal bacteria This is one of the bacteria that can lead to food poisoning. If the food preparer has the bacteria in a cut/ boil/ on their skin it can be passed onto the food you eat.
Once the bacteria is present in the food, if the food is not kept hot enough or is cold the bacteria will spread. Staphylococcal bacteria Infection of the hair follicle, usually when the client is run down/ or immunity is compromised.

Very infections can ooze pus that is also infections.

Can cause scarring after healing.

Commonly found on neck and face, but can be found on other areas of the body.

Boils can cause blood poisoning if the infection enters the blood stream. Boils / Carbuncles Boils / Carbuncles Caused by bacteria , infectious- so it is easily spread from person to person.

Impetigo is most commonly found on the face- usually around the nose or mouth, but can be found on the body and scalp too. Impetigo Impetigo Skin Diseases and disorders These workbooks go into your portfolios! Please keep neat. Skin Diseases and disorders Skin diseases and disorders Occupational/ Industrial Dermatitis A reaction to an earring- a common allergy to nickel is blamed for this reaction. The reaction occurs around the area touched by the substance the person is allergic to. Contact Dermatitis Commonly found in area that are in contact with irritating substances. Occupational Eczema Atopic Eczema Non infectious inflammatory condition of the skin causing over active sebum production.
This is a basic acne skin with no secondary infectious. Acne Basal Cell Carcinoma/ Rodent ulcer Milaria Rubra Lentigenes Areas of darker pigmentation.
Usually permanent although more noticeable on darker skin or with sun exposure. Stains/ macules Vitiligo A condition existing from birth which means sufferers have no pigment in their skin.
Albinos can be from any race or culture.
The condition may affect an entire family or just 1 member.
Albinos can be sensitive to light and prone to burning.
There is no cure and no treatment.
Not infectious. Albinism Abnormal whiteness of the skin. Leukoderma Chloasma Sebum trapped in the hair follicle with no opening.
Sometimes referred to as Milk spots.
Can vanish on their own, particularly if massaged.
Cause is not known although their may be a genetic link or environmental link. Milia Sebum that has blocked the hair follicle and oxidised turning black.
Usually found on face, back, neck and shoulders. Comedones / blackheads Sebum trapped under the skin's surface, causes the hair follicle to become enlarged.
Can be hard or soft.
Also known as sebaceous cysts and wens. Sebaceous Steatoma A burrowing mite that digs underneath the skin, usually seen in between fingers but can be found on arms, legs and body.
Can be passed on through holding hands/ direct contact.
Mites die without human contact so catching these mites indirectly is unlikely.
Can occur in nursing homes, hospitals, nurseries- anywhere there are lots of people in a small place. Caused by Itch mites. Scabies Referred to as “Crabs” because of its appearance.
In adults passed on by sexual contact. Children may get pubic lice but through non sexual contact from parents.
There is some doubt over weather you can catch pubic lice from sheets and bed linen.
They are not passed on through toilet seats!
Condoms do not protect against pubic lice!!!!
Bite by pubic lice can leave a blue mark. Pediculosis Pubis Warts- verucca vulgaris Very infectious.
Can occur when the client is feeling unwell or run down. Herpes Simplex Tinea Corporis Easily spread through direct and indirect contact, showrooms ect.

Often called athlete's foot as athletes feet sweat more leading to a perfect environment for bacteria to grow in.

Found in between the toes. Sometimes includes blister that burst. Tinea Pedis/ athletes foot Please answer question in workbook page 2. Can be spread through the air, direct contact with an infected person or through contaminated equipment / work surfaces ect.


Can enter the skin through hair follicles, pores, or broken skin. Staphylococcal Bacteria An infection caused by (pathogenic) bacteria.

The skin is usually covered with (non-pathogenic) bacteria which is harmless and sometimes beneficial to the skin and body.

Treatment with anti-biotics ( tablets or creams )may help. Bacterial Infections
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