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Marriage and Family
Transcript of Marriage and Family
Family- a socially recognized group that forms an emotional connection and serves as an economic unit of society
Family of Orientation - refers to the family into which a person is born
Family of Procreation- describes one that is formed through marriage What about families that deviate from this model, such as a single-parent household or a homosexual couple without children? Should they be considered families as well? Something to think about.. Children tend to be the key indicator in establishing a “family” status.
The U.S. Census Bureau defines a family as “a group of two people or more related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together.”
Today’s society has given more leeway to the design of a family,
making room for what works for its members. Challenges Family's Face
•Cohabitation- when a couple shares a residence but not a marriage
•Monogamy- when someone is married to only one person at a time
•Polygamy- being married to more than one person at a time
•Polygyny- refers to a man being married to more than one woman at the same time
•Polyandry- when a woman is married to more
than one man at the same time
•Bigamy- the act of entering into marriage
while still married to another person Marriage Patterns Kinship- one’s traceable ancestry, can be
based on blood, marriage, or adoption
Bilateral Descent- the tracing of kinship through both parents
Unilateral Descent- the tracing of kinship through one parent only
The type of residence an individual lives in influences how they trace their line of descent. Residency and Lines
Family Life Cycle-The set of predictable steps and patterns families experience over time
Sociologists view each stage as having its own structure.
The success of a family can be measured by how well they adapt to these challenges and transition into each stage.
The Family Life Course- recognizes the events that occur in the lives of families but views them as parting terms of a fluid course rather than in consecutive stages Stages of Family Life
Nuclear family- two-parent family structure
3% of children live with two cohabiting parents
66% of children under age 17 live in a household with two married parents. Variations in Family Life 27% of children live with a single parent only
Six in ten children living with only their mother live near or below the poverty level.
Extended Families- may include aunts,
uncles, and cousins living in the same home
Nine percent of all children live with a grandparent
Statistics show that children living in homes with both parents grow up with more financial and educational advantages than children who are raised in single-parent homes Single Parents Of those who cohabitate, the majority are
non-Hispanic with no high school diploma or
GED and grew up in a single-parent household.
The vast majority of cohabitating relationships eventually result in marriage.
Single parenting and cohabitation has become more acceptable.
The median age for marriage is the highest it has ever been. Cohabitation Patrilineal- follows the father’s line only
Matrilineal- follows the mother’s side only
Ambilineal- follows either the father’s only or the mother’s side only Three Types of Unilateral Descent: Same-Sex Couples
Never-married individuals in the 25
to 29 age bracket account for 62
percent of women and 48 percent of men.
Asian individuals are the most likely to marry while African Americans are the least likely to marry.
By the age of 40, 20 percent of women and 14 of men will have never married. Staying Single Theoretical
on Marriage and Family Functionalism Conflict Theory Family members take on status roles in a marriage or family. Men tend to assume the instrumental roles in the family, Women tend to assume the expressive roles. When family members move outside of these roles, the family becomes unstable. American families are private entities. Parents do not want the government to have a say in how they raise their children. The person with the most access to value resources
hold the most power. Men that work outside of the home tend to have more power than a woman that
the home. Symbolic
Interactionism The family itself is a symbol.
Meaning of the elements of family:
"Mother and Father"
Interactionists view the family as a group of "actors." Patrilocal Residence System- it is customary for the wife to live with or near her husband’s blood relatives
Matrilocal Residence Systems- it is customary for the husband to live with his wife’s blood relatives (or her family of orientation)
Children of divorced parents are 40 percent more likely to divorce than children of married parents.
Going through a divorce can be damaging.
Children’s ability to deal with a divorce may depend on their age.
Infants and preschool-age children
Older teenagers Divorce rates have dropped steadily
The rate of divorce varies by race
Addition of children
Decline in marital satisfaction
Financial stress Challenges Families Face Children of Divorce and Remarriage Violence
Abuse Domestic Violence Domestic Violence- Violence between household family members
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)- Violence between unmarried, cohabitating, and same sex couples
1 in 4 woman suffer from IPV
1 in 7 men suffer from IPV
Emotional violence Child Abuse Causes of Child Abuse:
Medical neglect Long Term Effects of Child Abuse: Forms of Child Abuse:
Age of parents
Drug and alcohol abuse Physical health
Social & education difficulties Something to think about... Why do you think Americans’ concepts of marriage and family are changing? 6 million children are abused each year. Something to think about.... In 1960, divorce rates peaked, affecting 22.6 out of every 1,000 married persons. Today, divorce rates have increasingly decreased by almost half of what they were in 1960 Why do you think that is? Are you surprised? Something to think about... Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is reported to have higher rates of abuse than domestic violence. Do you think this is due to the fact that the couple is unmarried, cohabitating, and/or is a same sex couple? What is a family to you?
Nationally, same-sex couple households make up 1 percent of the population.
Nearly half of same-sex couple households were reported as spouses.
Children of lesbian couples were shown to have slightly lower rates of behavioral problems and higher rates of self-esteem. Do you think that a child would have a harder time dealing with a family that does not get along or a family that is going through divorce?