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Psychology Unit 4: Brain, behaviour and experience AoS2: Mental Health and Illness

Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book

Simon Berry

on 1 July 2017

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Transcript of Psychology Unit 4: Brain, behaviour and experience AoS2: Mental Health and Illness

Psychology Unit 4: Brain, behaviour and Experience AoS2: Mental Health and Illness
Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book
What did we learn last lesson?
What are we learning today?
What are we learning this week?
Home learning discussion. Lesson Goals.

Normality, mental health and mental illness
What is normal and what is abnormal?
Ab simply means away from
Behaviour that is accepted in a particular society or culture, but not in others
eg. Burka's
Behaviour that is accepted, however it depends on the period of time
eg. Slavery
Behaviour that is accepted in a particular situation
Eg. Tackling a man
Abnormal behaviour has a biological cause and can be diagnosed and treated
Eg. The govt is out to get me (schizophrenia)
Normal behaviour is if the individual can function effectively in society
Eg. Cant hold a jon, or dress self
Normal Distribution = behaviour in a large group of individuals that is distributed in a particular way

Statistical Average = the majority that demonstrate this behaviour = normal

Statistical Extremity = the minority that demonstrate this behaviour = abnormal
Eg. My stupid tall brother
Statistical Normality/Abnormalit
Normality can be defined as a pattern of thoughts, feelings, behaviours that conforms to a usual, typical or expected standard.

- what is 'usual, typical, or expected depends on a many different factors...like?

Six approaches that have been influential are the socio-cultural, functional, historical, situational, medical and statistical approaches.

- each view it slightly different/or take a different persepctive
Normality and Abnormality
Differentiating mental health from mental illness
Mental Health is not something we either have or do not have.

Instead it is a continuum ranging from mentally healthy to a mental health problem.

It is differentiated on two characteristics
distress and impairment.

- When a person experiences distress they may feel upset, angray, tense, anxious or sad.

- Impairment in functioning refers to a reduced ability to do things one would normally do. Eg. Eating, sleeping, dressing self, etc.

Biopsychosocial Framework
Break the word down. What does it mean???
The biopsychosocial framework is an approach to describing and explaining how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s physical and mental health.

Biological factors involve physiologically based or determined influences, often not under our control, such as the genes we inherit and our neurochemistry.

Psychological factors involve all those influences associated with mental processes such as how we think; learn; make decisions; solve problems; perceive our internal and external environments.

Social factors are described broadly to include such factors as our skills in interacting with others, the range and quality of our inter-personal relationships, the amount and type of support available from others when needed, as well as socio-cultural factors
It is seen as a 'holistic' view of health
- individual should be considered as a 'whole person' functioning in thier unique environment.

In the BioPsychoSocial model a personality disorder might be best explained by a combination of:
- inheretance of certian genes
- poor self image and intense fear of abandoment
- strick upbringing and lack of social skills.

Each domain is equally important for both physical and mental heath.
- Does recognise that specific factors (abuse) may have more/less influence.

Factors often interact in a complex way
- This accounts for the individual differences in mental illness

It also applies not just to mental health but also illness.

Treatment should take place across all domains.
Systems of classification of mental disorders
All science classify. Eg. Homeosapiens.

Mental health professionals classify mental health problems and disorders in different categories according to characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviour.

- Classification
is the organisation of items into groups on the basis of their common properties.

A category, or class
, is a group of items that shares a particular set of properties.

A class may be further divided into a number of
subcategories, or subclasses.

As well as enabling
classification makes it easier to
identify and understand
the relationships between different groups.
Which is best?

Often both are used

Categorical approach used to classify the symptoms

Dimensional approach used to determine the severity of these symptoms

Categorical Approach
Dimensional Approach

Strengths/Limitations of Categorical Model - REMEMBER!!!
S/L Dimensional Approach
Key Principles
Mental disorder can be diagnosed from specific symptoms reported/and presented shown) by a client during maental health assessment

- Different disorders do not overlap

- all or nothing principal

eg. A personal is either pregnant or not. She cant be a little bit pregnant
There has been 5 revisions. Each expands the list of disorders...using current scientific research
- 365 mental disorders described
- 16 major categorizes
Box 12.4 pg 486 Skim
For every disorder there is a
"Diagnostic Criteria"

It is a list of symptoms that are characteristic to the disorder.

You need to have these/amount of these to be diagnosed.

Purpose is reliability.
When diagnosing it is important to take into account the 5 axis.

Its why its called a multi-axis system

Each axis is different information about the person.
Read pg 490 Box 12.5
As a class
PG 491 LA 12.5
Q1, 2
Ext 4b,c, e
PG 493 Skim Box 12.6
Pg 494 Learning activity 12. 7
In class Q2
At home Q1,2

- Historically low inter-reliability (same client different conclusions - subjective)
- Much better now with DSM-IV-R 70% agreement between mental health professionals
- Lots of overlap between symptoms can make diagnosis of a specific mental illness difficult (see pic)
- Loss of clinical information (uniqueness of person lost)

Most common criticism
- Stigma and labellin

Categorical Approaches organize and describe mental conditions and disorders in terms of different categories ans subcategories, each with symptoms and characteristics that are specific of mental conditions and disorders.
Dimensional Approach (also called continuum approach) quantifies a persons symptoms or other characteristics of interest and represents them with numerical values on one or more scales or continuum rather than assigning them to a mental disorder category.
Categorical Approach
- All or nothing approach
- Categories of metal illness that you can belong to
- Symptom characteristics that should be present to have the mental illness.
- Mental health professional records symptoms and assigns mental illness

Dimensional Approach
- Grades a person on dimensions using a inventory (test)
- Scores show how much/litter mental dysfunction a person has.
- Clusters of symptoms
- Completed by an inventory (or test). Closed ended questions over a number of dimensions

- Scores show
how much/little a person has of each dimension and also indicated the degree of psychological dysfunction.

- Do this by comparing to the avg. Statistical approach to normality/abnormality.
Is the diff significant? Statistical normality is the key here!

- Does NOT focus on whether or not someone has or has not got a mental illness...
rather grades a person in magnitude/degree/severity on particular dimensions.

- A Profile
can be/is created and continual testing can show improvements/declines and give a personal overview.
- There is no standard inventory to compare scores to, thus diagnosis is difficult. (heaps of different ones)

- Disagreement with mental health professionals and researchers at to the number of dimensions that exist.

Pg 502
Read box 12.9

Pg 502
In class L.A. 12.10

Home L.A 12.9
Q1, 2, 3,
Ext 4, 6,

Exam Question
Stress and Health
Schizophrenia progression
There are currently two main approaches to
classifying mental conditions and disorders:

1. categorical approaches (YES:NO)
2. dimensional approaches (How much)

Both approaches have strengths and limitations.
ICD - 10
Can you think of any reasons why it could be helpful to classify mental disorders into categories?

Can you think of any reasons why it might be unhelpful to classify mental disorders into categories?

Working Example
Pop Quiz
Question 1: What is classification?

Question 2: Categorical approaches are a ____ or ____ approach to the classification of mental conditions and disorders.

Question 3: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is produced by the ____________________.

Question 4: The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is produced by the ___________________.

Question 5: Which chapter of the ICD covers mental disorders?

Question 6: If a psychologist ranks a client’s symptoms and this gives them a profile of high and low scores across different dimensions, they have used a ___________ approach to classification.

Question 7: If a psychologist diagnoses a client with having a disorder, they have used a _______ approach to classification.

Question 1: What is classification?
Answer: The organisation of items into groups on the basis of their common properties.
Question 2: Categorical approaches are a ____ or ____ approach to the classification of mental conditions and disorders.
Answer: Yes; no.
Question 3: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is produced by the ____________________.
Answer: American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Question 4: The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is produced by the ___________________.
Answer: World Health Organization (WHO).
Question 5: Which chapter of the ICD covers mental disorders?
Answer: V (5).
Question 6: If a psychologist ranks a client’s symptoms and this gives them a profile of high and low scores across different dimensions, they have used a ___________ approach to classification.
Answer: Dimensional.
Question 7: If a psychologist diagnoses a client with having a disorder, they have used a _______ approach to classification.
Answer: Categorical.

For your exams
- Reach out
Physiological response to stress
Addictive Disorder: Gambling
Biological and psychological responses to stress
A stress response, or ‘reaction’, involves the physiological (‘bodily’) and psychological (‘mental’) changes that people experience when they are confronted by a stressor.

- Classified as mild, acute, chronic

Mild - sometimes desirable, playing in a comp sports game
Acute - immediate up/down - car accident
Chronic - long term - cancer
Physiological response to stress
Psychological response to stress
2 commonly used models:
- Fight/Flight response
- General Adaption Syndrome (only need to know eustress and distress)
Fight/Flight response
Involves both the SNS and the endocrine (hormone) system
Social/Cultural response to stress
Social Responses to stress
Pg 516 L.A. 13.1
In class Q3a,b, 4c, 9ab
Notebooks Q1ab, 4a, 5a Ext 6ab
Eustress and Distress
Hans Selye - GAD summar
Selye (1974) proposed that not all stress is necessarily bad or negative.

He proposed that stress oculd be either negative (bad) or positive (good).

Eustress – positive psychological response to a stressor
(generally short term)

Distress – negative psychological response to a stressor
(short term or long term)

Some stress can be good for us
Drive us to excel
Raise our alertness, arousal, fire us up etc.
List 3 examples of Eustress

List 3 examples of Distress

Can the same stressor produce Eustress in one and Distress in another?

Eustress - generally positive
Distress - generally negative

Important to note- our physiological approach to eustress or distress is the same.
Emotional / Cognitive changes don't occur in isolation (they influence one another) and include behavioural changes.

Behavioural changes are apparent in how a person looks, talks, acts and so on.
Eg. – shaky voice, hand tremors, muscle stiffness
- Some people act more aggressive others draw.

Pg 520 L.A. 13.4
Lazarus and Folkman (1984)
The Lazarus and Folkman transactional model of stress and coping proposes that
- stress involves an encounter (‘transaction’) between an individual and their external environment,
- and that a stress response depends upon the individual’s interpretation (‘appraisal’) of the stressor and their ability to cope with it.
3 parts:

- Stress involves a
transaction between the individual and the external environment

- Coping
will depend on the appraisa
l of the situation by the individual and their ability to cope

- Stress is in the
eye of the beholder
In class pg 521
Read For example, imagine
Appraisal (interpretation)

How an individual appraises the situation & their ability to deal with it will determine whether or not a stress response is experienced.

Not necessarily a conscious process but it is subjective
Used humans in developing the model

Focuses on psychological determinants of the stress response

Emphasises individuality of the stress response

Reappraisal allows for the fact that stressors can change over time & leads us to change our thinking about a stressor

Proposes different methods for managing psychological responses to stress

According to the Biopsychosocial Model stress is also infludenced by social factors,
which the framework describes broadly to include cultural and environmental factors.

It is difficult to draw a clear line between social, cultural and environmental factors, as they overlap and typically combine in influencing the stress response
Social Factors
Cultural Factors
Environmental Factors
Strategies for Coping with Stress
Difficult to test through scientific research because of the subjective nature of an individuals response

Primary & secondary appraisals can occur simultaneously making it difficult to isolate them as separate variables for study

There is doubt that we need to appraise something as causing stress in order to have a stress response

Didn’t include cultural or social factors in looking at how individuals perceive a stressful event

Pg 529...Holmes and Rahe Readjustment scal.
Read pg 531 Tbl 13.3
Pg 537 L.A. 13.9
Class 3, on board 4ab
Notebooks Q1, 2a, ext b

The biopsychosocial framework does not explain how factors from within each domain actually combine, or ‘come together’, when we are exposed to a stressor.

More recently, theorists have used a
construct called allostasis to explain this.
Allostasis helps the body achieve stability by changing!

Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain a stable physiological environment by keeping certain body conditions constant (eg. temperature)

Allostasis = Changing
Homeostasis = Same
Allostatic overload is considered to represent the point at which a person actually develops a serious health problem such as a physical disease and/or mental disorder.
Exam Question
Biopsychosocial model (Venn Diagram) for gambling addiction

***When treating you would use all 3. Take a bio-psycho-social approach to treating stress/mental illness
- Subjects can learn to control (ANS) response using biofeedback and relaxation techniques over time

- Often doesn’t work outside of a lab setting

- Useful for helping ppl how to recognize and control specific physiological responses to stressors in their life.
Biofeedback – is a technique that enables an individual to receive information (feedback) about the state of a bodily process(bio).

- With training and individual can learn to controlrelated physiogical responses.

During biofeedback training, electrical or mechanical sensors, like electrodes used on the EEG or a blood pressure cuff, are attached to the person.

These sensors respond to a particular physiological response, such as tension in a particular muscle, blood pressure or skin temperature.

The signals that are detected are then analysed and displayed, often visually/auditory (graph/beep).
Meditation and relaxation
Physical Excercise
Meditation is an intentional attempt to bring about a deeply relaxed state in order to reduce one or more effects of stress-related symptoms.

- sometimes meditation used interchangeably with relaxation

Relaxation is any activity that brings about a state of reduced psychological and/or physiological tension.

Research findings indicate that a deep state of relaxation, which is equivalent to a relaxed meditative state, is essentially the opposite of a typical stress response.
Physical Activity that is planned and performed to improve or maintain one’s physical condition.

- Social interaction

- Uses up stress hormones secreted by HPA

- Release tension in muscles

- Release of endorphins – pleasure related neurotransmitters

- Aerobic activity reduces stress more than anaerobic (anaerobic better than none)

- Strenuous physical activity produces chemicals that improve PY health.
Relaxation Response Pg 546
Social Support
Social support is help or assistance from other people when needed.
- those providing social support could be family, frineds..anyone we have an ongoing r/s with.

Appraisal support – improves understanding of the situation

Tangible assistance – material support, financial, food, goods etc

Information support – ideas on how to cope

Emotional support – targets emotional reactions by the individual, cared for and valued
Pg 549 L.A 13.12
Q1abc, 2ab, 3a Ext 2c,d, 3b

Pg 551 L.A. 13.13
As class 3
Notebooks Q1,2,

Quizletts GOD damm it!
Characteristics of addiction
Gambling as an addiction
Problem Gambling
Pathalogical gambling disorder
Biological contributing factors
Role of the dopamine reward system
Targeting the dopamine reward system for treatment
Psychological contributing factors

Social Learning theory
Symbolic Models
Schedules of reinforcement
Psychological Treatment of problem gambling
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Psychodynamic psychotherapy
Socio-Cultural contributing factors
Social permission
Support Factors
Recovery Groups
Addiction is a condition in which an individual feels a recurring urge to use a specific type of substance or engage in a certain activity despite potentially harmful consequences.

The condition is associated with i
mpaired self-control and mental preoccupation or continued use of the substance or engagement in the activity, despite the potentially adverse effects.

- DSM 5 now has a section called Substance-related and addictive disorders
According to Mark Griffiths 6 Characteristics (symptoms/behaviors) of non chemical addiction:

- Salience
refers to the high level of importance of the activity in the person’s life (
activity dominated thier thinking)

- Mood modification
refers to the change in subjective experience that people with an addiction report as a consequence of engaging in the activity

- Tolerance
refers to the decreased sensitivity to the activity over time, whereby increasing amounts of the particular activity are required to achieve the original desired effects.
(Chasing the dragon, betting larger and larger)

- Withdrawal
refers to the unpleasant psychological and/or physical reactions that occur when the particular activity is suddenly reduced or discontinued.
(sadness, irratibility)

- Conflict
refers to disagreements, clashes and other problems experienced by the person with the addiction and that arise as a consequence of their addiction
(intrapersonal conflict with family)

- Relapse
refers to the recurrence of earlier patterns of the activity (or ‘symptoms’) after a period of abstinence (e.g. voluntary non-engagement) or control
(e.g. improvement or apparent ‘cure’).
pg 734/5
Read Box 15.1
In class Q2, 3, 4
Gambling is any activity in which money (or anything of value) is put at risk on an event of uncertain outcome that relies, in part or entirely, on chance.

- Most defs refer to risking something for entertainment purposes...to distunguish b/w speculative trading on the stock market
....is this appropiate?

2 main types

Contineous...betting and outcome short ->instant gratiication (pokies)

Non-Continuous...betting and outcome long -> delay gratification (horse races.

Whick would be more addictive to start with (think OC)
The goal of all forms of gambling is to win more than is lost.

Various commercial operators are based on the absolute certainty that, ultimately, the gambler will lose more than they will win over time.

Gamblers understand this but believe they can 'beat the odds'.
Australia is a Gambling culture. Many people have a bet on the Melbourne cup.

It is a source of recreation and pleasurable social activity.

Elederly and Ethnic communities have found Casinos (and RSLs) safe social appealing enviornments
Problem Gambling: stops being pleasurable and becomes a serious problem that causes harm to themselves and/or to those around them, such as their partner, family, friends or others in the community.

When gambling begins to consume more money and time than a person can afford, it can affect many parts of the individual’s life, including their psychological and physical health, relationships, finances, work and study (see figure 15.4)

Problem Gambling and Pathological Gambling are used interchangeably.
Problem gambling is characterised by difficulties in limiting money and/or time spent on gambling, which leads to adverse consequences for the gambler, for others or for the community.

- Def most used in Aust.

- Gambling under this def is represented on a continuum (Categorical or Dimentional)
125 000 Australians are problem gamblers

290 000 Aust are at risk

Pathological gambling disorder...term used by DSM
... a pathological gambling disorder is characterised by persistent and recurrent gambling behaviour that disrupts personal, family and/or work-related relationships and activities.

Defining problematic gambling in these terms draws attention to its ‘maladaptive’ nature; that is, the behaviour does not assist or promote adaptation to the demands of everyday life.
In order to be diagnosed with a pathological gambling disorder, according to the DSM-4, a person must exhibit 5/10
following symptoms
(Polythetic Criteria):

- Preoccupation with gambling
- Tolerance
- Loss of control
- Withdrawal
- Escape
- Withdrawal
- Escape
- Chasing
- Lying
- Illegal activity
- Risked relationships
- Bailout
In Class
Pg 743
SAC on 27th Study Chr 12, 13
There have been reports of people treated with dopamine medications for Parkinson’s disease who apparently developed a gambling addiction soon after treatment.

Psychologists have investigated the potential role of dopamine as a contributing factor in gambling addiction.
Dopamine is found in relatively few areas of the brain but appears to have a role in the development and maintenance of addictive gambling, as well other potentially addictive behaviours.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is believed to be involved pleasure, motivation, emotional arousal, and voluntary movements.

- Associated with positive emotions

- Releases (pleasurable) after complex motor movements that lead to reward

- Too much has been linked to schizopherina

- Used in Extacy.
The Dopamine reward system is a neural pathway that delivers rewards (or pleasurable experience) when stimulated.

Located in the medial forebrain budle (near Hypocampus)

- Most susceptible to stimulation that produces pleasure and these neurons release dopamine.

Read...pg 745 Studies with Animals.
Some medications can decrease the frequency of gambling behaviour.

Naltrexone (used for treating alcohol dependancy and drug addictions) is an antagonist (inhibits the activity of a neurotransmitter)

In this case it inhibits the dopamine activity.

Results in decreased subjective feeling of pleasure.

So if taken when gambling...less pleasure...lesss reason to gamble.
Number of psychological factors have been proposed as contributing to the development and maintenance of gambling addiction.
In 1977, Bandura included these ideas in a theory that he initially called social learning theory.

Social learning theory is a description and explanation of learning that combines operant conditioning and observational learning processes, taking account of the environment, or ‘social context’, in which they occur.

According to social learning theory, we are more likely to model, learn and perform behaviours that are observed to be desirable and reinforcing.
Based on social learning theory, researchers have demonstrated that media portrayals (including advertising) of gambling can encourage the observer to engage in gambling by providing vicarious reinforcement.

‘Models’ used to promote gambling do so in a way that demonstrates positive consequences (positive reinforcement) without showing the adverse consequences (punishment).

Media portrayals of gambling also tend to
convey explicit (obvious) and implicit (subtle) messages that gambling is socially approved and desirable, thereby increasing the likelihood of imitation by the observer.
50% of people diagonised with a problem gambling disorder identified gambling as one of the main reasons.

- Ads only show the positives of gambling.

- News reports (lottery) focua on winning

- Nearly everyone 99.95% of people lose when they gamble.

- This is not representative.
Real Life Models
Real-life models are people with whom we have direct contact, such as parents, siblings, teachers and friends.

Many young Aust. learn about gambling in the family setting

- Seen as positive recreational activity

- Gambling venues have family days to encourage the 'family entertainment' side of gambling

Considerable research shows that being exposed to gambling by an adult (as acceptable) can lead to the development of a disorder later.
Symbolic models are presented to us in media such as television, movies and books.

Research studies indicate that the higher the status of the model, the more the observer will imitate the behaviour, which is why many advertisements feature celebrities

Gambling providers spend large sums of money to encourage sports, arts and charity events to display their company identifiers.

According to social learning theory, the young person keen on sports and identifying strongly with the success of sporting heroes will take in all these images, seeing them as an endorsement of gambling, and may begin to consider the prospect of similar rewards for themselves.
Read Consider the case of 19 year old.
Read Box 15.6
Gamblers persist with hours of losing in the belief that a big win is around the corner.

When this is analysed in terms of the schedules of reinforcement proposed by Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, people continue to gamble because they become accustomed to the partial schedule of positive reinforcement under which gambling operates.

Variable/Partial reinforcement schedual is what?
The use of pokie machines which have variable ratio schedules are extremely hard to extingish.

Pokie machines use a Random Ratio reinforcement schedule.

It means nothing can be done to predict the next payout (even though gamblers believe there is a pattern).
Professional help is not usually sort until a person hits rock bottom.

Problem gamblers are more likely to have:
- relatively low levels of education (less than tertiary degrees)
- derive their main income from social security payments (other than the age pension)

A higher proportion of people who are unemployed have gambling problems than gamblers with a different employment status.
Is a type of therapy that combines
cognitive and behavioural
therapies to help people overcome psychological problems and mental disorders.

- based on the assumption that the way ppl feel and behave is due to their thinking.

CBT aims to assist the individual to identify where they may have become trapped or stuck in their way of thinking and to assist them to discover other ways of looking at their situation.

Two of the most common cognitive distortions held by people with a gambling addiction are illusions of control and the gambler’s fallacy.
An illusion of control refers to the mistaken belief (‘illusion’) that the outcomes of random, unpredictable events can be infl uenced (‘controlled’) by one’s thoughts or actions.

The gambler’s fallacy refers to the belief that in a series of independent chance events, future events can be predicted from past ones
. Eg.
- a random event is more likely to occur because it has not happened for a period of time
- a random event is less likely to occur because it has not happened for a period of time
- a random event is more likely to occur because it recently happened
- a random event is less likely to occur because it recently happened.
The goal of the
cognitive component

of CBT in the treatment of problem gambling is to help the person to
identify and correct distorted thoughts, beliefs and attitudes

about playing and winning games of chance.

Psychologists asssit with the development of awareness of ideas such as randomness, probabilities, betting systems and causality, and how these apply to games of chance.

Diaries are kept as records of win/loss, reasons for gambling.
- encouraging the client to directly confront their distorted thoughts

Problem solving skills are taught to help people resist the urge to gamble.
behavioural component
of CBT in the treatment of problem gambling involves assisting the person to use
behavioural techniques to manage the tension, anxiety or arousal that is frequently associated with compelling urges to gamble.

- Can use desensitisation after learning realaxation/meditation methods.

-Imaginal desensitisation is a great non-threating start,
In explaining problem gambling, Freud (1928) proposed that the Oedipal complex was the probable source.

According to Freud (1928), gambling in an addictive way provides an opportunity to lose and thereby punish oneself for feelings of guilt associated with the Oedipal complex. In turn, this unconscious desire for self-punishment relieves the guilt feelings.

The aim of psychodynamic psychotherapy is to assist the individual to achieve abstinence (never gambling)

Therapists use a range of psychodynamic techniques including:
- free association
- dream interpretation
- identification of defence mechanisms
- displays of transference.

Critics: This cant be tested, evidence for based on single case studies.

Important contributory factor is the transmission (in our culture) that gambling is acceptable, often as a recreational activity.

The potential for harm sets gambling apart from other enjoyable recreational activities.
Social networks
Gambling as a recreational activity is well entrenched in Australian society.

Viewed as part of popular culture: Think Melb cup, Tipping Comps, AFL/NRL grandfinal.

The perception that gambling is socially permissible has an influential effect in determining the rate and frequency of gambling among different sectors of the population.

Research indicated that younger Aust are more likely to perceive gambling as socially acceptable and consistent with social norms.
Support may be provided through an individual’s social network, as well as through recovery groups that may be accessed in the local and wider community.

Social networks give access to social support. Family, friends etc.

Social Support can take the form of (revision for stress)
- Appraisal Support
- Tangible assistance
- Informational Support
- Emotional support
A recovery group, or support group, is a not-for-profi t support group run by and for people who interact on the basis of common interests or experiences to support one another.

Recovery groups are built on a foundation of mutual support for a specific mental or physical health condition, such as problem gambling, grief, major depression, schizophrenia, breast cancer or diabetes.

The goal is drawing on each others experiences to develop problem solving skills for the self-management of problem gambling in a step by step recovery.
Pg 472 L.A. 12.1
In class activity
Approach to defining Normality
Pg 474 Learning Activity 12.2
In class Q4
Notebooks Q1
Australia Institute of health and welfare
- Mental health is the capacity of an individual to interact with others and the environment in ways that promote subjecting wellbeing, optimal development throughout the lifespan and effective use of the person's cognitive, emotional and social abilities.
Mental Health
Mental Health Problem
Mental Illness
If distress persists and/or certian thoughts or feelings beging to interfere with daily life (eg. lack of concentration, sleeing habits, mood) a person may be experiencing a mental health problem.
In a state of wellbeing we will experience up's and down's and will be able to navigate these as part of daily life without seeking professional assistance.

But when a major negative life event occurs (eg. death of a loved one) or more serious prolonged problem (eg. addiction) coping becomes more difficult and a
mental health problem
may arise.
Often refered to as 'the blues', a rough patch, low point

- They are relatively common.

- Usually not very severe.

- Usually not very long lasting.

Majority of people get over it, often with the support of loved ones and friends.

In some cases if not effectively dealt with it can develop into a mental illness.
A mental illness is a psychological disorder that significantly interferes with an individuals:
- cognitive ability
- emotional ability
- social ability
Often called a mental disorder.

Symptoms vary depending on the mental illness but are a-typical for that person.

Atypical means that the persons thinking, feeling, or behaviour is not normal or typical form them (out of character).

Disrupts a persons functioning and capacity to deal with daily life.

1/5 or 25% of ppl will experience a mental illness in thier life.
Level of impairment can range from moderate to debilitating

Usually last longer than a mental health problem.

Can only be diagnosed by a health professional.

Some examples:
- Anxiety diaorders (phobia of spiders)
- Mood disorders (depression)
- Psychotic disorder (schizopherina)
- Impulse control disorder (pathalogical gambling)
Pg 479
Read Box 12.2 - Good mental Health
Pg 481
L.A. 12.3 Q1,2

First edition was classed the international causes of death (ICD) published in 1893

Like the DMS it is a blue book used by mental health professionals.

Diagnostic guidelines are provided for each disorder.
- Based on current ongoing scientific research that is revised on the basis of new findings
- Assists in diagnosis and subsequently allows the creation of a treatment and management plan.
- User friendly - consistent with the types of decisions heath professionals make every day.
- Help communication b/w health care professionals
Eg. Big 5 Personality Inventory
Eg. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI-2
Eg. Before and after treatment
The Eysenck Personality Questionaire-Revised (EPQ-R)
is an example that uses the dimensional approach.

Does not look at if a client 'has' or 'has not' got something, rather how much a person has of certain traits.

It rates clients of three dimentions:
- Extraversion-Intraversion
- Neuroticism-emotional stability
- Psychoticism

Class Activity - Get your computers out
A lot of PYs believe Dimensional approaches address the weakness of Categorical approaches

- Take into account a wider range of factors than categorical approaches
This means more detailed information on each symptom and takes into account overlapping combinations of symptons

- Reduced stigma as labeling not used instead a profile is created.
Instead a personal profile id developed and the person is show as scoring high on traits that are evident in all people to a degree
Pg 504 L.A 12.11
Q1, 2a Ext 3, 5
List some more examples
A stressor is any persona, object, situation or event that produces the stress.

What are some example?
Read pg 513 More recent research...
Unlike the fight-flight response the HPA axis takes significantly longer (seconds to minutes) to exert its influence

With long term stressors the HPA axis continues and cortisol remains in the blood stream. This leads to:
- impaired immune system functioning
- increased vulnerability to disease
HPA Axis
Pg 518 L.A. 13.3
In class Q2
Notebooks Q1ab, Ext 3
The cognitive appraisal of the stress
Emotional changes associated with stress influence a way a person feels.
Eg. - anxious, tense, depressed angry etc
- feelings accompanied by a negative attitude to themselves/work/school and life.

Cognitive changes associated with stress influence a persons mental abilities such as perception of circumstances/environment, their ability to think and learn.
Eg. perception distorted, difficulty concentrating, making decisions, forgetful etc.
- Catastrophising
Primary Appraisal
We evaluate (judge) the significance of the situation.

We appraise it as:
- Irrelevant
(eg. teacher yelling at another student..not friend)
- Benign

(eg. winning the lottery)
- Stressful
(eg. lose job). If stressful we the appraise the stress as
- harm/loss:
assessment of how much damage has been done (eg. crash a car....what have I done..?)
- threat:
what harm could occur in future (eg. how much will cost)
- challenge:
assessment of what personal growth could be gained (eg. Ill have to get a better job for more money)
Secondary Appraisal
We evaluate our coping options and resources and our options for dealing with a stressful situation

Coping optional are:
- Internal:
(eg. strength and detirmination)
- External:
(eg. support from parents and friends)


We determine the extent to which additional resources are neto cope with the situation.
Two parts:
- reappraising the situation taking into accout teh resources available
- reappraising the coping resources while taken account of the reappraised threat.

If coping demands are percieved as far greater than we have available we are likely to experience a stress response.
If we cant escape the stress response we need to learn to effectively cope with it.

Coping is the process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal and/or external stressors that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.
Draw on board...in books
Pg 525 L.A. 13.6
In class 6c, d
Q1, 2, 4abc, 6a
Allostatic systems act to protect the body by responding to external and internal stimuli

- Large variation of theses systems DO NOT directly lead to death (unlike homeostasis)...over time

Most common allostatic symptom is the flight-fight response.
- Once the threat is over the allostatic system is switched off
Allostatic load refers to the cumulative negative effects of the wear and tear that the body and brain experience due to repeated cycles of allostatic changes (and the inefficient turning on and off of theses respnses.
Allostasis and the bio-psycho-social model

- Acknowledges that all types of factors within the individual (bio/psycho) and the environment (social) are potential stressors and that how we respond can reduce/increase allostatic overload.
Pg 542 Read tbl 13.4
Pg 542 Learning Activity 13.10
Q1,2, 3a, 4a, Ext 3bc, 4bc, 5
Jie’s story on pg 659. Could you please read then..

1. Write down the development of the disorder from a Biopsychosocial framework.
2. Write down a treatment method from a Biopsychosocial framework.
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