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Ecological Systems Theory


April Brewer

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of Ecological Systems Theory

History of Ecological Systems Theory Case Study Critical Analysis Large Group Dialogue Term 'ecology' originated in biology; usage in several disciplines

Study of organism-environment interrelation

Credited to German zoologist and evolutionist Ernest Haeckel in 1873: proposed a new science to study organisms in their environment, believing it to be inseparable parts of a whole

Growing interest in person-environment interrelation in 19th century with Darwin's theory of evolution

Development in relationship to environment: influence of neighborhood

Bronfenbrenner's rejection of the idea of 'pure science' (i.e. value-neutral and context-free) in order to be useful

(Tudge & Gray & Hogan, 1997) Yong-Soo What did you think? Ecological Systems Theory Applications What's Out There? Life Course Principles Ecological Transitions and Human Development Ecological Transition:
Occurs whenever a person’s position in the ecological environment is altered as the result of a change in role, setting, or both. Urie Bronfenbrenner Four Components Culture Ecosystems Theory Definition "The ecology of human development involves the scientific study of the progressive, mutual accommodation between an active, growing human being and the changing properties of the immediate settings in which the developing person lives, as this process is affected by relations between these settings, and by the larger contexts in which the settings are embedded." Small Group Discussion Identify the systems at play in Yong-Soo’s life:
Micro, Meso, Exo, Macro, and Chrono

How do each of these systems affect him? What does this suggest about his developmental stage at this point? How do they impact the psychosocial stressors associated with his age?

Based on what we know from the systems at play in Yong-Soo’s life, what impact does this have on his adult life in the Eriksonian stage of development middle adulthood? Implications for Clinical and Administrative Practice Clinical Interventions
Community Planning and Organizing
Framing Social Policy
Cultural Sensitivity
Holistic Approach Up in the Air Objectives Class Note Theory Changes Proximal Processes PPCT Model James Garbarino 'Crossing' Thank You! By Michael Park
April Brewer Understand the ecological systems theory and the ideas of Bronfenbrenner and Garbarino
Determine and identify varying systems at play within societal structures
Comprehend the differences and the evolutionary changes associated with the theory
Analyze the applicability of the theory to current events and issues related to both clinical and administration areas of social work. Born in Russia
Emigrated to the U.S. at age 6
Enlisted in U.S. Army as a private
1st hand experience with ecological transitions
Studied at Cornell University, Harvard University, and University of Michigan
Co-founded the Head Start Program
Most influential factors growing up:
Family: Father was a physician, home was a 'halfway house' for Russian immigrants
Friends: Helping him learn English and American culture

(Bronfenbrenner, 1995) (image from: Schoolwork helper website) (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) Microsystem Activities Roles Interpersonal Relationships Interaction within setting with physical or material characteristics Family School Peers Religious Activities Mesosystem Interelations between 2 or more settings Person actively participates Relations among family, school, peer group Neighborhood Work Social Life Play area Exosystem 1 or more settings that do not actively involve the participant Still Affects Participant Family Friends Parents' Work Envionment Social Welfare Services Legal Services Extended Kin Neighbors Healthcare School System Mass Media Macrosystem Consistencies in form and content of lower order systems Subculture Beliefs Ideologies Laws Nationality Customs Economics Political Systems Society Chronosystem Changes over time: life transitions, markers of development, changes in stability, on family/individual level, and historical/sociocultural level (Tudge & Gray & Hogan, 1997) Questions? Comments? Concerns? Human Development:
The process through which the growing person acquires a more extended differentiated, and valid conception of the ecological environment
Person becomes motivated and able to engage in activities that reveal the properties of, sustain, or restructure that environment at levels of similar or greater complexity in form and content (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) Addition of Chronosystem
Changing terminology
Bioecological Social Model Human development takes place through processes of progressively more complex reciprocal interactions
this happens between an active, evolving biopsychological human organism and the persons, objects, and symbols in its immediate environment.
To be effective, the interaction must occur consistently, over extended periods of time.

Examples of enduring patterns of proximal process: parent-child and child-child activities, group or solitary play, reading, learning new skills, studying, athletic activities, and performing complex tasks (Bronfenbrenner, 1995) PPCT Model Form, power and content of proximal processes vary systematically PPCT model: A research design that permits their simultaneous investigation in the form of specific hypotheses is referred to as a process-person-context-time (PPCT) model (Bronfenbrenner, 1995) Principle 1: The developmental life course is embedded in and powerfully shaped by conditions and events occurring during the historical period through which the person lives

Principle 2: A major factor influencing human development is the timing of biological and social transitions as they relate to the culturally defined age, role, expectations, and opportunities occurring throughout the life course

Principle 3: The lives of ALL family members are interdependent. How each family member reacts to a particular historical event or role transition affects the developmental course of the other family members, both within and across generations

(Bronfenbrenner, 1995) Image from: American Program Bureau Human Ecological Theory Founding Director of the Center for the Human Rights of Children at Loyola University Chicago 1991- UNICEF missions to assess the impact of the Gulf War upon children in Kuwait and Iraq
Consultant for programs serving Vietnamese, Bosnian and Croatian child refugees. Chicagoan! Bronfenbrenner: 'Second Father' 1968: Graduated St. Lawrence University
1973: PhD in human development and family studies from Cornell University Professor at Loyola University Chicago
Maude C. Clarke Chair in Humanistic Psychology; Ph.D. Topic Issues Using Ecological Model as the framework for understanding and creating appropriate and effective interventions and policy Methamphetamine use in rural communities Trauma and prolonged effects of war and violence Bullying and Victimization Impact on children of incarcerated parents Military Parents and Deployment HIV/AIDS Medication Adherence What was shared? Why is this important? How does this help? Why is this model useful? Nature vs. Nurture Dilemma
Cognitive Development Exclusion?

"Scholars who draw on his early writings have represented his position as focusing almost exclusively on environmental influences on development. A casual reading of Bronfenbrenner’s early writings on the ecology of human development reveals that they are very well developed with regard to the various contexts in which developing humans find themselves, but have little to say about the nature of the developing organisms themselves."

(Tudge & Gray & Hogan, 1997) Virginia Tech Shooting
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