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history of the camera

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stephanie miles

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of history of the camera

history of the camera The camera obscura projects images of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography and the camera. The device is a box or room with a hole in one side. Light passes through the hole and hits the surface inside where it is shown, upside-down, but with color. 1666 Obscura Demonstrated that light is the source of colour. He used a prism to split sunlight into its constituent colours
and another to recombine
them to make white light. 1725 Isaac Newton Johann Schulze
Discovered the darkening
of silver salts by the action
of light. Dolland
Developed the Achromatic
telescope lens, this improved
the image of the camera obscura . 1758 Thomas Young
Told us that the retina at the back of the eye contains three types of colour sensitive receptors, one sensitive to blue light, one to green and one to red. 1801 Wedgwood
Made silhouettes of opaque objects by printing them on silver nitrate coated paper, but the images were kinda faded. 1802 J. Nicephore
Made the first permanent image using camera obscura and white bitumen it, took 8 hours to expose! 1826 Daguerre Started partnership with Niepce. 1829 Fox Talbot Experiments using Silver chloride coated paper to make "negatives" of silhouettes. 1834 Fox Talbot
Using his small "mousetrap" cameras he photographed the inside of a library window at , making the first negative. 1835 Daguerre
Following experiments on his own he evolved a workable process (Daguerreotype). Silver iodide coated copper plate was exposed and developed by mercury to give a single direct positive. He removed the remaining silver iodide with a warm solution of cooking salt, they took 30 minutes to develop. 1837 Daguerre
Daguerreotype process was released for general use in return for state pensions given to Daguerre and Isidore Niepce. 1839 Fox Talbot prepared and presented papers at the Royal Institution and the Royal Society. Unlike the Daguerre process the image is recorded as a "negative" and had to be printed as a similar process to produce the final "positive". 1840 Fox Talbot
Patented "calotype" a negative / positive process with 5 minutes exposure time. 1841 Petzval
Mathematically calculated compound lens of f/3.6 effectively reduces Daguerreotype exposure to 1 minute. 1841 Fox Talbot
Publishes "Pencil of Nature" the first book with photographic pictures. 1844 Niepce De St. Victor
Discovers the use of albumen to bind silver salts on glass base. Albumen process requires 10 minutes exposure. Talbot patents process in England. 1847 Blanquart-Evrard
Proposes use of Albumen for printing paper. Albumen paper was never patented and was popularly used for 40 years. 1850 Scott Archer
Proposes "Collodion" process. Collodion (a solution of nitrocellulose in a mixture of ethyl alcohol and ethyl ether) forms a binder for silver iodide on glass. Exposure and processing is performed immediately after coating plate. Scott Archer did not patent the process and died in poverty. Two versions of this process were "Ambrotype" and "Tintype" . Exposure was about 10 seconds . The Collodion process greatly expanded photography and brought everyone into contact with its results. 1851 James Clerk Maxwell
Demonstrated the formation of colours by combining three light sources of red, green and blue. All other colours, including white, are a mixture of these primary colours. The colours combine by an additive process. 1861 Louis Ducos du Hauron
Published a book telling us how a range of colour photographic methods might work, but they could not yet be used. 1868 Dr. Richard Leach Maddox
Writing in the ‘British Journal Of Photography’ he suggested gelatin, created from a protein found in animal bones, as a collodion substitute. Gelatin "Emulsions" and "Dry Plates" were marketed by various manufacturing companies from 1878, and gelatin is still used today. 1871 Hannibal Goodwin
New York clergyman filled patent for roll film with a flexible plastic base 1887 George Eastman
Produced the first simplified camera system for the general public, The Kodak Number 1, and the first mass Developing and Processing service. 1888 George Eastman Produced the first transparent roll film (nitrocellulose) 1889 Hurter & Driffield
Devised the first independent system to give emulsions speed numbers, this essentially led to the current ISO numbers on film boxes today. 1890 1904 Augusta and Louis Lumiere
atented "Autochrome" the first additive colour screen film material. Siegrist and Fischer
The two German chemists invented the action of colour coupling , so dyes used for colour film processing could be made by combining the right developer oxidation products with colour former chemicals. 1912 Oscar Barnack
An employer of E. Leitz designed a camera for use with a microscope using motion picture film, this became the first precision 35mm camera. It was called the Leica. The things the Leica could do made a new form of photojournalism possible, said the Magnum photographic agency. 1924 Kodak
Mannes and Godowsky
helped develop Kodachrome for home movies, the following year it was introduced in 35mm format. 1935 Agfa
This German company was the first to sell a film, Agfacolor, with the colour formers in the film. Towards the end of the second World War their closely guarded secrets were "liberated". Large factory size laboratories took over film processing from individual chemists. However chemists still continued to sell films. 1940s Dr. H. Vogel
Research lead to panchromatic film using sensitising dyes. This type of film is sensitive to all visible colours. 1904 1936 Magnum Magnum,
arguably the most famous photographic agency in the world, was founded in 1947 by Henri Cartier-Bresson, David Seymour and Robert Capa. They made a type of photojournalism that was based upon the capability of the Leica 35 mm camera. Magnum is still an exclusive club of illustrious photographers with membership limited to thirty six. 1947 Dr. Edwin Land
Invented an "instant" picture process, first called Polaroid Land. The special camera sandwiched the exposed negative with a receiving positive paper and spread the processing chemicals between the two, after processing these were peeled apart. 1947 Dr. Edwin Land
His Polaroid Corporation's research team invented the first instant colour picture material. 1963 Canon
AE-1 the first 35mm camera with built in microprocessor is introduced 1976 A system called DX coding was introduced for 35mm films. The cassettes have an auto-sensing code printed on them which enable certain cameras to automatically set the film speed. 1980's Canon
Demonstrated the first digital still camera 1984 Minolta
The Minolta 7000 auto-focus 35mm SLR camera was introduced 1985 Microsoft Windows 3.1 is released 1990 Adobe
Adobe Photoshop 1.0 image manipulation program is introduced for Apple Macintosh computers 1990 Tim Berners-Lee
Develops the software and protocol for the World Wide Web (WWW) 1 1992 APS
Advanced Photo System (APS) is introduced. APS uses a cassette which holds 24 mm wide film on a base which has a magnetic data strip as well as fine grained emulsion. When the film is being developed automatic handling mechanisms locate the correct frames and determines the required print format from the data strip. After processing the film is rewound into the cassette and a digitally mastered index print of all the frames is created as a reference for reordering. 1996 The first consumer megapixel cameras were introduced. 1998 Canon
Canon introduced the EOS D30, the first digital SLR for the consumer market with a CMOS sensor 2000 Sharp and J-PhoneIn
November 2000 Sharp and J-Phone introduced the first camera-phone in Japan. The J-SH04 is a mobile phone with a built in camera, it uses a 110,000-pixel CMOS image sensor and began the trend for camera-phones. These cameras play an increasingly significant role in photography, for example the main news pictures covering the 7 July 2005 London bombings were taken by the general public on camera-phones and not by professional news crews. However the use of camera-phones can also be abused leading to invasions of privacy and other forms of socially unacceptable behaviour. 2000 Contax
Contax introduced the NDigital the first SLR digital camera with a CCD the same size as a 35 mm frame. 2002 THE END
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