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Gandhi and his Legacy
Transcript of Gandhi and his Legacy
On April 13, 1919, 20,000 unarmed Indians were gathered for a political protest in Amritsar, India. General Dyer ordered his men to fire on them, because the protest was illegal. 379 Indians died, and 1137 were wounded.
The year was 1955.
She was arrested for something that wouldn't be considered a crime now.
The incident was a major breakthrough for the civil rights movement.
How would you describe this man?
Apartheid, literally meaning 'apart-hood', was a type of racial segregation in South Africa.
Even though they were a minority, Whites had more rights.
In Champaran, India, an area in the Himalayan foothills, tenant farmers were being forced to pay high rents to their landlords. Gandhi led the tenants in non-violent protest for seven months. This was Gandhi's first political act in India.
Gandhi in India
Gandhi returned to India in 1915 permanently. He traveled all over India, and observed the grinding poverty of Indians firsthand.
Gandhi was deeply moved. He discarded his western clothing, and switched to wearing an Indian Peasant's wear. Soon, people began to call him "Mahatma".
Gandhi asked Indians to boycott all British products. He asked Indians to wear homespun clothing, called 'Khadhi'.
In 1921, in a town called Chauri Chaura, a protest got out of hand. The protestors burned a police station and hacked policemen to pieces. Gandhi called the protests off immediately. The British sentenced Gandhi to six years in prison. This was his first imprisonment in India.
The British forced Indians to buy salt made in their factories. Gandhi opposed this policy. He led thousands of Indians to the sea coast of the Arabian Sea, and picked up grains of salt that had washed onto shore.
This march was 200 miles long, and lasted 3 weeks. It started with 78 people, and grew into thousands. This happened in March 1930.
Round Table Conference
After the Salt March, in August 1931, Gandhi was invited to London to participate in the Round Table Conference to discuss India's freedom. Nothing much came out of it, and Gandhi returned to India empty-handed.
Quit India Movement
In 1941, the Indians launched a massive protest against the British.
This was called the Quit India Movement. The British arrested 100,000 Indians and put Gandhi in jail.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
Finally, in 1947, the British left India, but they partitioned her into a mostly Hindu India, and a mostly Muslim Pakistan. This caused large scale violence between the Hindus and the Muslims, resulting in up to one million deaths.
It happened in Montgomery, Alabama.
Gandhi started a fast on January 13, 1948, to reconcile the Hindus and Muslims. He succeeded, and the violence stopped. However, an extremist Hindu, Nathuram Godse, felt that Gandhi was too accomadating to the Muslims, and shot him thrice, killing him at a prayer meeting in Delhi on January 30, 1948.
Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India in 1869 into an orthodox Hindu family.
His father was the prime minister to a local prince.
Gandhi married at the age of thirteen to his wife, Kasturba.
At age nineteen, Gandhi went to England to study law.
After he came back to India, he could not make a go as a lawyer.
In 1893, he moved to South Africa to work as an attorney for a local firm owned by Indians.
Gandhi stayed in South Africa for 21 years to help Indians secure their rights. In 1894, Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress, and had many political victories.
Gandhi is considered the apostle of non-violence.
His 'Satyagraha' struggle against the British is held up as a model to fight injustice in the world by non-violent means.
This inspired people such as Martin Luther King Jr. in his civil rights movement in America, and Nelson Mandela in his anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa.
"Jesus gave us the strategy of non-violence, and Gandhi gave us the tactic. We may ignore Gandhi at our own risk."
-Martin Luther King Jr.
Gandhi called his methods of protest against South African government 'Satyagraha'.
Satyagraha literally means 'The Force of Truth and Love'.
The technique involves resisting violence with non-violent protest.
Gandhi believed that such resistance would eventually force the oppressor to come around.
He used Satyagraha later against the British in India as well.
Demi. Gandhi. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 2001. Print.
Furbee, Mary and Mike Furbee. Mohandas Gandhi. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc. 2000. Print.
Gandhi, Richard Attenborough, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007
http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/P/Rosa-Parks-9433715-1-402.jpg. Rosa Parks. Biography, December 30, 2013.
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/modern/jb_modern_parks_1_m.jpg. Rosa Parks Was Arrested for Civil Disobedience December 1st, 1955. December 16, 2013.
http://consortiumnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/nelsonmandela.jpg. Danny Schechter, Sanitizing Nelson Mandela, January 7, 2014.
.http://media.newindianexpress.com/March-On-Washington-P_Siva.jpg/2013/08/29/article1757900.ece/alternates/w620/March%20On%20Washington%20P_Siva.jpg, 50th anniversary of 'I have a Dream' speech, January 14, 2014
http://images.tribe.net/tribe/upload/photo/bec/5b8/bec5b8c6-1327-48f5-94db-23170de978a6, Gandhi's grave, November 15, 2013.
.http://www.wallpaperswala.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Nehru-Ji.jpg, Jawaharlal Nehru, November 16, 2013
http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/91/24991-004-7A816B5E.jpg, Jinnah, Mohammed Ali. November 16, 2013.
http://historypak.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Quit-India-Movement.jpg, Quit India Movement [ 1942]. October 30, 2013.
http://cseindiaportal.wordpress.com/2012/09/24/quit-india-movement-1942/quit-india-movement/, Quit India Movement. October 30, 2013.
http://topnews.in/usa/files/Dandi-March.jpg, Jamie Williamson, Now Dandi March in US against corruption in India, October 29, 2013.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Second_round_tableconf.gif, File:Second round tableconf.gif, October 30, 2013.
http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/freedom/818.jpg, The Salt Movement, October 29, 2013.
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/02/20/article-0-17D3510E000005DC-959_634x446.jpg, TONY RENNELL, Carnage, but was it panic or malice, asks TONY RENNELL: The 1919 massacre split the opinion of the people of Britain, October 15, 2013.
http://www.kew.org/plant-cultures/img/medium/ceb0045.jpg, ,radhikaranjan samadder, Indigo Revolt of Bengal and Bihar (contd-2), October 15, 2013.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Gandhi_spinning.jpg, Mahatma Gandhi, October 14, 2013.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Gandhi_South-Africa.jpg, Mahatma Gandhi, October 15, 2013.
http://0.tqn.com/d/history1900s/1/0/W/D/1/gandhi.jpg, Gandhi -Jennifer Rosenberg, Biography of Mahatma Gandhi, October 15, 2013.
http://timelifeblog.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/01_00245352.jpg%3Fw%3D675, LIFE Behind the Picture: Margaret Bourke-White, Gandhi and His Spinning Wheel, 1946 October 22, 2013.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Young_gandhi.jpg, File:Young gandhi.jpg, December 23, 2013.
http://blog.buzzintown.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/gandhi-young.jpg, History & About Mahatma Gandhi: His Mission, Beliefs & Strengths | 2nd October, January 4, 2014.
http://images.politico.com/global/2013/12/09/1976_south_africa_white_area_sign_ap_605.jpg, Where racism was demanded, ROGER SIMON, November 3, 2013.
http://www.thehenryford.org/exhibits/rosaparks/story.asp, The Story Behind The Bus, November 30, 2013.