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Great Depression & WWII

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j bowers

on 6 January 2017

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Transcript of Great Depression & WWII

Summer Olympics - Berlin, Germany
Rowing - Men's Eights
Chapter 10
The Great Depression & World War II

New York Stock Exchange crashes, Great Depression starts
Summer Olympics - Berlin, Germany
October 29, 1929
August 1936
Indian Reorganization Act signed into law
June 1934
The Great Depression
- The cause of the Great Depression is unknown for sure but here are some of the strong possibilities:
1.) Lack of diversity in the economy
2.) Uneven distribution of wealth
3.) Debt
4.) International situation
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor - US joins war
December 7, 1941
World War II begins in Europe
September 1939
- Six year war begins with Nazi's invading Poland
- U.K., France, Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and Canada declare war on Germany
- US stays neutral
- All Jews in Germany and German occupied countries are sent to Ghettos in preparation for Hitler's "Final Solution"
Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes President, winning forty-two states with 472 votes
March 1933
April 1945
Harry Truman becomes President
The Great Depression
- During the 1920s a significant amount of people from all classes had invested in the stock market so when it crashed the wealthy, middle-class, and the poor suffered
- The Depression was at its worst in 1933 when the average unemployment rate was about twenty-five percent
- Spread to Europe and all around the world
- Washington's economy had gone up considerably during World War I because of the demand for agricultural products, natural resources, ships, and airplanes. When the war ended the demand was no longer needed. During the 20s manufacturers were overproducing and many of the businesses went bankrupt
World War II
D-Day - Allies storm Normandy beaches
June 6, 1944
V-E Day - Berlin taken by Russian and Polish forces (5/2/45), Germany surrenders
May 8, 1945
V-J Day - After US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima (8/6/45) and Nagasaki (8/9/45), Japan surrenders
September 2, 1945
Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of England
May 1940
- Hitler tries to promote Aryan race among other countries
- Jesse Owens wins four gold medals and breaks three world records in track and field, Hitler refuses to acknowledge him
- US rowing team (composed
of all UW students) comes from
behind to beat Germans and
Italians with Hitler in attendance
12 years
6 years
January 27, 1945
- Deadliest war in history
- Known for significant amount of civilian deaths
- Only war in which nuclear weapons were used
- Most widespread war in history with more than 100 million people fighting
- Major participants placed their entire economical, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war
- Main causes were tensions between countries and unresolved issues from World War I as well as the Great Depression
The Great Depression is over due to New Deal and wartime industries
Hooverville - Seattle
The Great Depression
Herbert Hoover becomes President
March 1929
- Lambert, Dale A., and Dustin W. Clark. "Chapter 10: The Great Depression & World War II (1929-1945)." Washington: A State of Contrasts. 2nd ed. Wenatchee, WA: Directed Media, 2008. 292-335. Print.
- Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 26-30 Nov-Dec. 2012. <http://www.wikipedia.org/>.
- "Google." Google. Google, n.d. Web. 26-30 Nov-Dec. 2012. <http://www.google.com/>.
- "Google Images." Google Images. Google, n.d. Web. 26-30 Nov-Dec. 2012. <http://images.google.com/>.
- YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 26-30 Nov-Dec. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/>.
World War II
- U.S.
- Britain
- Russia
- France
- Australia
- Belgium
- Brazil
- Canada
- China
- Denmark
- Greece
- Netherlands
- New Zealand
- Norway
- Poland
- South Africa
- Yugoslavia
- Germany
- Italy
- Japan
- Hungary
- Romania
- Bulgaria
Summer Olympics - Berlin, Germany
Track & Field - Men's 100m Dash
Society At the Time
Films from the
February 1942
- President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066
- All people in the US of Japanese descent rounded up and sent to one of ten internment camps across the western US because of fear of spies and sabotage
- Two-thirds of them were American born (Nisei) and proclaimed their loyalty to the US. There was no evidence that the older generation (Issei) were spies either
- Internment camps were challenged in court several times however each time the law was determined constitutional
- Fred Korematsu's legal case was taken all the way to the US Supreme Court but the law was still upheld
- Many Nisei chose to join the Armed Forces. 442nd Regiment becomes most decorated regiment in history of the US Army
Tripartite Act signed - Germany allies with Japan and Italy forming the main Axis Powers
September 1940
Dust Bowl begins
Okies migrate across country looking for new jobs, many come to Washington
June 1933
Congress passes President Roosevelt's New Deal
- Government spends extra money to create more jobs
- Programs such as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civilian Works Administration, the Public Works Administration, and the Works Progress Administration are established to provide jobs by taking unemployed people and giving them work (building roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, parks, trails, campgrounds, dams, and recreational facilities)
- Federal Reserve System and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation reestablish trust in the banking system
- Agricultural Adjustment Act attacks the low price of agricultural products
- National Recovery Administration helps industrial businesses by offering government contracts which guarantee business and income
Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany
August 1934
- Before, Indian children were educated in white schools, forbidden to practice native traditions, and forced to convert to the American culture
- Now, reservation land no longer sold to non-Indians, Indians have their own tribal government, US government provides funds for education and healthcare
World War II
- US had to provide food for British, Soviets, Chinese soldiers as well as their own. Agriculture and fishing industries increase majorly
- Timber and mining industries also increase due to the demand for construction projects such as dams, airplanes, ships, buildings, homes, and weapons
- Navy demands aircraft carriers, battleships, destroyers, and submarines. Washington gets nearly one hundred shipyards. Kaiser Shipyards in Portland/Vancouver area establishes record by lowering average ship construction time from one hundred days to five days
- US and British militaries contract to William Boeing to build airplanes. Aluminum is developed enabling planes to be larger, safer, and have offensive capabilities. Boeing makes B-17s and B-29s which contained most of the bombs dropped on Japan and all of the bombs dropped on Germany
Japanese Internment
World War II
Society: Part 2 - Filling open jobs
- US military needs more soldiers, institute draft
- Women needed to fill positions of men, government encourages women to join factory workforce working the same jobs as their male counterparts
- African Americans migrate to Washington also filling jobs of their white male counterparts
- Washington's cities grow in population, rural areas decrease in population. Farmers need more people to work in field. Government creates Bracero Program to bring Mexicans (braceros) to farms to help with harvest
World War II
Society: Part 1 - Assisting the war effort
- Citizens have to make personal and economic sacrifices for war
- Energy and food conserved. Each family and individual was allowed only a certain amount of major food and consumer items. This was monitored and regulated by ration books
- All factories were geared towards producing materials for the war (no cars, electronics, boats, etc. for sale during war)
- Public buys war bonds to help fund war
- Major war industries in Washington make it a target for enemy air raids. Anti-aircraft guns on roofs of important buildings, blackouts at night, major factories disguised from aerial view
- Public volunteers to help by joining WAVES or Red Cross
President Hoover's approach vs. President Roosevelt's
The Great Depression
- President Hoover believed, along with most of the population before the Great Depression had started, that the government should not be involved in the economy and that it was natural for the economy to have growth as well as depression. He also believed that the Depression would be short and soon the economy would be recovering. As a result of this he did nothing to prevent or solve the problem in the economy
- President Roosevelt wanted the government to be involved in the economy and help put a stop to the Depression. His campaign offered change, hope, and unlike Hoover's, a solution to the Great Depression.
August 1942
President Roosevelt starts Manhattan Project
- Top secret military project
- Top scientists help to create atomic bomb
- Research and development is spread to several different locations across the country
- One of them was Hanford Nuclear Site near present day Richland, WA where plutonium was produced
- Fashion: decorative shoulders, zippers, man-made fibers, suntans, less colors
- Transportation: travel by airplane new (not very popular), trains, boats, cars
- Communication: radio, letters, movie theater news, newspaper, not many phones
- Popular music was jazz and swing bands
- Bands usually led by strong female voices
- 1940s brought rise in popularity of country music
- Electric guitar invented in 1931
- Popular artists: Frank Sinatra, Edith Piaf, Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, Benny Goodman
- During WWII a lot of music served as war propaganda
6-10 million Jews are killed in the Holocaust
1.3 million are in Auschwitz
Battle of Iwo Jima starts
February 19, 1945
Battle of the Bulge begins
December 16, 1944
- Last major offensive for Germany, Hitler attempts to split Allies in two
- Largest and bloodiest battle of WWII
- Harsh weather conditions
- Surprise attack drives back Allies but German tanks run out of fuel
- Malmédy and Chenogne Massacres
- Allies counter-attack and win
442nd Regiment
- Nisei joined the Army and fought in the European Theater to avoid going to internment camps
- There were 3,800 soldiers in the 442nd
- Their first battle was the Battle of Belvedere which proved that they could hold there own
- Twenty-one members were granted the Medal of Honor
- Daniel Inouye loses arm, receives Medal of Honor, becomes US Senator from Hawaii. Second longest serving Senator. Died 12/17/12
A Time Which Will Live In Infamy
Washington's wartime industries
New Deal
New Deal projects in Washington
- Tacoma Narrows Bridge
- Olympic National Park
- Rock Island Dam
- Grand Coulee Dam
- Bonneville Dam
Russians liberate Auschwitz concentration camp
Full transcript