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Madeleine Wood

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of history

Reconstruction Reconstruction Amendments The reconstruction amendments are the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments of the United States Constitution. They were put in place 5 years after the Civil War. Sharecroppers and the Freedman's Bureau Social Changes Amendment XIII: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Amendment XIV: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein thy reside. No states shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United Sates; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
Amendment XV: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude Primary Sources Relating to Politics Many of the northern abolitionists stopped helping the freedmen in the south shortly after the war ended, resulting in a weak support system for the blacks. Blacks now had to rely on themselves to achieve ultimate freedom.
Freedmen had to also free themselves mentally once they were liberated. They had to lose their slavery mentalities.
The Black Codes established "were further evidence the south would never reform itself" (Patriots History). Andrew Johnson After President Lincoln's Assassination, Andrew Johnson attempted to carry out Lincoln's plan after the war. Johnson was depicted as a man mainly concerned with following the literal statements in the Constitution. Also, when in office, did not follow Lincoln's ideas to recreate slaves into freedmen with equal opportunity in society. "Johnson vetoed bills to help Negroes; he made it easy for Confederate states to come back into the Union without guaranteeing equal rights to blacks." (People's History 194) Voting African Americans arrive to vote among whites *1866 Civil Rights Act preceded the creation of these reconstruction amendments National Union Convention- August 1866. Andrew Johnson cries at his failed attempt to make the National Union Party a force to oppose congressional reconstruction. African Americans took office positions as high as the U.S. Senate, the first black senator being Hiram Revels of Mississippi "The Ku Klux Klan targeted local Republican leaders and blacks who challenged their white employers, and at least 35 black officials were murdered by the Klan and other white supremacist organizations during the Reconstruction era."-History.com Feb. 6, 1869- Freed black slave meet to discuss their rights and liberties. Lack of education was an issue for newly freed African Americans. They needed to be responsible for themselves because they could be led into agreements that are unsafe. Appeared during the presidential election of 1868. There is a black union veteran reaching for a ballot box, and being held down by three democratic figures who are also stepping on an american flag.This implies that the democrats are dishonoring the nation and it's values. Although slaves are now “free’ they are still dependent on the plantation owners. Slaves
still have to overcome many obstacles to gain true freedom.
- After the civil war the south is devastated while the north is flourishing. The south has more rebuilding it has to do, and old ways will have to shift now that slavery has been abolished.
-"We are ready to pay for this land, When Government calls for it." (Quotation from a petition/letter from Freedman, Henry Bram, 1865) Although slaves had "their" land that they paid for, they did not own it themselves. Freedmen wanted economic independence and freedom, and they unfortunately had to rely on sharecropping in order to attain it. Control of property and life was limited at first for them, but through persistence, they would be able to free themselves economically.
Sharecropping was common for freedmen; it allowed them to have the economic freedom and have their own property to manage. The down side to sharecropping was that each contract differed, leaving the freedmen to negotiate for themselves.
Sharecropping allowed freedmen have some sort of economic freedom, but failed to resolve the problem with equal opportunity with regard to land ownership. Thereby, it restricted the ability for African Americans to exercise their political rights. The most interesting aspect when comparing Patriot's and People's History of Reconstruction is that they describe sharecropping in two distinctly different ways. Patriot's History Describes Sharecropping with the idea that both participants benefited.
"...sharecropping minimized transaction costs while at the same time extended new levels of freedom and responsibility to the ex-slaves." (364) Describing that for the land owner benefited with fewer transactions and the freedman got the freedom they desired. People's History People's History describes the struggle of the freedmen associated with sharecropping a "system of fraud." According to People's History, "The Negro farmer, to get the wherewithal to plant his crop, had to promise it to the store, and when everything was added up at the end of the year he was in debt," (204) Describing the relationship between freedmen and landowners, revealing that sharecropping did not allow freedmen true economic independence. With Protection provided from officials from the Freedman's Bureau and the Union Army, "Negroes came forward, voted, formed political organizations, and expressed themselves forcefully on issues important to them." (People's History 194) "There was the powerful interest of the Republican party in maintaining control over the national government, with prospect of southern black votes to accomplish this." (People's History 193) Fredrick Douglass said......."Slavery is no abolished, until the black man has the ballot." (Patriot's History 363) "After a brief period of Republican control in the South which saw major improvements in the lives of African Americans, Southern states instituted new laws aimed at intimidating black political activities."-Archives.org Reconstruction act of 1867- African Americans now held the majority in South Carolina's state legislature, which frightened many whites. Image depicting Johnson essentially ignoring the needs of freedmen through his laws and inaction... Mocking Abraham Lincoln's presidency and his policies regarding reconstruction 1868- shows strain between southern whites and freedmen during reconstruction. A Bureau agent stands between the two groups. Johnson as an out-of-touch leader who supported "constitutional liberty." Poster attacking the Freedman's Bureau claiming it enables the freedman at the expense of the white man. Social Division Post Civil War North- The northerners were abolitionists, they believed in ending slavery all together. Their opposition to slavery contributed greatly to the conflict between the north and the south.
South- Patronized blacks and were strongly for slavery, their attitude does not change. The whites in the South had a different perspective of black people post-civil war. They were determined to have more power over blacks. They wanted things to go back to the way they were before the war.
Blacks- wanted freedom, tired of being patronized by the South and their inferior beliefs.Their main goal was independence and freedom. *The three groups wanted to define new social, political, and economic in the post war Reconstruction Era Title reads, "Slavery is Dead?" with a picture of a slave being sold on the left before the emancipation proclamation, and a slave being whipped for a crime on the right after the emancipation proclamation. By Victoria, Melissa, Akua, Kasandi and Maddie
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