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Sci 7- Topic 1-2-3 Planet Earth
Transcript of Sci 7- Topic 1-2-3 Planet Earth
1. Igneous Rock
2. Sedimentary Rock
3. Morphic Rock Here is a hint that will help you remember where
Igneous Rock comes from: Liquid Hot..... There are two types of Igneous Rocks:
•intrusive (cooled and hardened magma below the Earth's surface) Some examples of Intrusive rocks: Gabbro Granite Some Examples of Extrusive Rocks: - forms when hot magma (or lava) cools and solidifies
- Magma is melted rock found below the Earth's crust Andesite Basalt
- is formed from sediment (loose material - rock, minerals, plant and animal remains - that is layered and compacted together by the pressure of the material above it) Types of Sedimentary Rock Shale Shale is formed from the grains
of mud or clay Sandstone Sandstone is formed from larger pieces of sand, usually made of quartz stratification is the visible evidence of the layers cementation - some of the minerals that dissolve with the addition of water, makes a natural cement that glues the pieces of sediment together.
•conglomerate (pebbles and small stones cemented together)
•limestone (organic sedimentary rock, containing fossils - plant and animal remains) Metamorphic Rock
Read pages 366- 367 This type of rock has changed its form from what it was originally. It is formed below the Earth's surface by extreme pressure and heat The Rock CYCLE - Rocks are constantly changing. The Rock Cycle does not have a set order as they are weathered, consolidated, buried, melted and solidified
read page 386 What are some techniques you can
use to identify rocks? Sediment and Soil - soil formation is determined by climate, type of rock present, amount of water, organic material, air spaces, living organisms in the soil. - decaying material in the soil is called compost, when mixed with other matter, it becomes the dark-coloured portion of the soil called humus - humus is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium, which dissolve in water, making the soil fertile (supplying nutrients for plant growth) Soil Profiles Read Page 372
Write down what topsoil is and what subsoil is!!!! Work on topic 2
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Rocks contain naturally occuring, non-living minerals. Moh's Hardness Scale - Friedrich Mohs developed a scale with 10 values of 'hardness' in 1812 - Diamond is the hardest and talc is the softest Crystals Crystals are the building blocks of minerals.
They occur naturally
having straight edges
straight angles - There are 6 different crystal types: cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, orthohombic, monoclinic and triclinic (Table 5.2 p. 355) Identification of Minerals The 5 properties that can be used to identify minerals are: - Colour: colour can vary even within the same mineral, like corundum
(it can be white, blue or red) - Streak: a streak is the color, of the powdered form, of the mineral. (it can be made by
scratching a porcelain tile) - Cleavage and Fracture: is the way a mineral breaks apart. - Transparency:
it can be transparent (see through),
opaque (non-see through) 6 mins- intro to rocks- crystals how do these rocks vary? 1:21- lustre and streak 3:42- Song on Mohs Scale- pretty good... 1 min on streak - Lustre: this refers to the 'shininess' of the mineral (see Table 5.1 p. 355) Applications - Iron and pyrite help the blood carry oxygen - Kidneys produce crystals, called kidney stone - Calcium and dolomite help regulate water in body cells - Diamonds are used in surgery, razor blades, computers, dentistry, oil drilling and a glass-cutter's wheel has diamonds embedded in it . . . Erosion is the movement of rock and mineral grains from one place to another.
Weathering (3 types) breaks down and wears away rock, creating sediment. - the physical break-up or disintegration of rocks, caused by gravity, temperature change and frost wedging
- mechanical weathering "wears away"
what the sedimentation "builds-up" - chemicals, present in the earth's surface or atmosphere, can be dissolved in water and react in the chemical decomposition of rocks and minerals (acid rain) - living organisms (plants, animals, bacteria and fungi ) can breakdown rock
- plant roots, acidic fluids produced by roots, bacteria, fungi and some insects and small animals can cause chemical reactions Mechanical Weathering Biological Weathering The Changing Surface of the Earth - agents of erosion include: glaciers, gravity, wind, and water - changes can occur gradually (glaciers) or suddenly ( flash floods, landslides, rock slides) - large rocks caught up in a glacier and then left behind when the glacier recedes are called erratics - sediment that is push away, as the glacier moves forward, are called moraines - scratches, made in the bedrock, by glaciers carrying rocks are called striations - wind carries rock particles across the landscape, eroding the land by abrasion
(planting vegetation, contour farming and reduced tillage can reduce the effects of wind erosion) - When a river becomes mature it begins to meander (curving its bed from side to side) Most minerals are rare and can be elements (pure substances) or compounds (combinations of pure substances). pure compounds Igneous Rock •extrusive (rock that forms when lava - magma released during a volcanic eruption - cools on the surface) Sedimentary Rock Other types of Sedimentary Rock: IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER! Topic 2 - Chemical Weathering - gravity causes landslides and rock slides
eg. Frank Slide (a retaining wall can often be used to hold back unstable material - but this is not always the best protection) - Water is one of the most powerful causes of erosion WRAP-UP p. 381
Questions 2 to 10 Water in Motion - Sudden or incremental changes occur due to the movement of water (rivers, rain, ocean waves) Unique Rock Areas in Alberta - Dinosaur Provincial Park (The Badlands) - Frank Slide - Okotoks "Big Rock" an erratic - Moraines in
Banff national Park - Athabasca Riverbank - Columbia Icefield Topics 1-2-3