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Leadership

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Beverly Roberto

on 1 March 2015

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Transcript of Leadership

Leadership
Leadership vs management
Leaders are intuitive, more visionary
Leaders are primarily Concerned with results
Leaders obtain power from below

physical appearance
intelligence
self-confidence
- may be defined as the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the organization in order to achieve certain objectives
what good leaders have in common?
informal leadership
Coercive power
legitimate power
Reward power
Formal leadership
Managers are rational problem solvers
Managers are concerned with the efficiency of results
Managers obtain theirs from above

Managers perform other administrative function such as planning, organizing, decision-making and communicating
Kinds of Leadership
- is where a person is officially designated as the leader of a group
- motivate the members of the team to carry out their tasks of their abilities.
- this informal leader does not hold any position of formal authority or power over the peers choosing to follow their lead but can influence the decisions of others
expert power
Referent power
power and the leader
- the main concern of a leader is the influence people to behave as he wants them to
position power
- is that power derived as a consequence of the leader's position
- also referred to as authority this power emanates from a person position in the organization
- this power emanates from one's ability to grant rewards to those who comply with a command or request
- this power arises from the expectation of subordinates that they will be punished if they do not conform to the wishes of the leader
personal power
- the leader's personal power results from his personal characteristics
- an expert who possess and can dispense valued information generally exercise expert over those in need of such information
- this power refers to the ability of leader to develop follower from he strength of their own personalities
theories of leadership
trait theories
- has pattern of actions used by different individuals determines leadership potential
- proposing specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders
sociability
persistence
initiative
knowing how to get things done
self-confidence
- focus on identifying critical behavioral determinants of leadership that, in turn, could be used to train people to become leaders
alertness to and insight into situations
cooperativeness
popularity
adaptability
verbal facility
Attributes:
factors:
extraversion
conscientiousness
- individuals who like being around people and are able to assert themselves
openness
what good leaders have in common?
emotional intelligence
- individuals who are disciplined and keep commitments that they make
- individuals who are creative and flexible
- individuals who are able to understand and manage their personal feelings and emotions
behavioral theory
behavioral leadership studies
the ohio state
university studies
- sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior
initiating structure
consideration
- to extend to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search fro goal attainment
- the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationship characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates ideas, and regard for their feelings
the university of
michigan studies
- sought to identify the behavioral characteristics leaders related to performance effectiveness
employee oriented
production oriented
- emphasizing interpersonal relation; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members
- one who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job
the yukl studies
Gary M. Yukl
Performance Emphasis
Consideration
Praise-Recognition
Decision-Participation
Training-Coaching
Problem-Solving
Work Facilitation
Inspiration
Structuring Reward Contingencies
Autonomy Delegation
Role Clarification
Goal Setting
Information Dissemination
Planning
Coordinating
Representation
Interaction Facilitation
Conflict Management
Criticism Discipline
The managerial
grid
Robert Blake
&
Jane Mouton
- composed of five different leadership styles. These styles were a relation between a manager's concern for people, concern for production and his motivation
Contingency theories
- successful leadership occurs when the leader's style matches the situation
continuum of leadership behavior
- consists of seven alternative ways for managers to approach decision making, depending on how much participation they want to allow subordinates in the decision making process
Robert Tannenbaum
Warren Schmidt
three factors:
forces in
the manager
- consists of the manager's background, knowledge, values, and experience
forces in
subordinates
- The leadership style of greater participation and freedom can be exercised by the manager if the subordinates:
are craving for independence & freedom of action
want to have decision making responsibility
identify with the organization's goals
are knowledgeable & experienced enough
have experience with previous managers
forces in
the situation
- organization's preferred style, the specific work group, the nature of the group's task, the pressures of time, and environmental factors
the contingency
leadership model
- proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation favors the leaders
Fred
Fiedler
leader-member relations
- degree of confidence, trust and respect the followers in their leader
task structure
- extent to which the tasks the followers are engaged in are structured
position power
- power inherent in the leadership position
the path-goal model
- states that the leader's job is to create a work environment through structure, support, and rewards that helps employees reach the organization's goals
Robert House
Leader identifies employee needs
Appropriate goals are established
Leader connects rewards with goals
Leader provides assistance on employee path towards goals
Employees become satisfied and motivated, and they accept the leader
Effective performance occurs
Both employees and organization are better able to reach their goals
Four leadership behaviors
Directive Leader
Supportive Leader
Participative Leader
Achievement-oriented Leader
the hershey-blanchard situational leadership theory
- suggests that a leader's style should be determined by matching it with the maturity level of each subordinate
Paul
Hershey
Kenneth Blanchard
contingency theories
The leader-member
exchange approach
George Graen
- recognize that leaders develop unique working relationships with each group member
Normative decision model
- aka "the leader participation model" & "decision making model of leadership"
Victor Vroom
Arthur Jago
Based on the following
assumptions:
the leader can accurately classify problems according to the criteria offered
the leader is able and willing to adapt his or her leadership style to fit the contingency condition he or she faces
the leader is willing to use a rather complex model
the employees will accept the legitimacy of different styles being used different problems, as well as the validity of the leader's classification of the situational hand
muczyk-reimann model
- it suggests that 'participation' behavior is concerned with the degree to which subordinates are allowed to be involve in decision making
Four Leadership Styles:
The directive autocrat
The permissive autocrat
The directive democrat
The permissive democrat
Four Leadership Styles:
Directing
Coaching
Supporting
Delegating
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