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Transcript of Lisa Aguirre
The Adamstown Police Department has hired an Organizational Development Leadership Consultant to create a plan to enhance organizational effectiveness
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
High-quality exchanges between leaders and employees benefit leaders, employees, and organizations by increasing organizational commitment, organizational citizenship, job satisfaction, and task performance (Graves & Luciano, 2013).
Leaders develop distinct relationships with each employee (Graves & Luciano, 2013).
High quality exchanges are based on mutual trust, obligation, and mutual respect (Graves & Luciano, 2013).
Identify and explore behaviors and strategies that enhance creativity, learning, and adaptability (Uhl-Bien, Marion, & McKelvey, 2007).
Take ownership of personal leadership in every interaction with others (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
Push responsibility downward to be able to focus on identifying strategic opportunities, forming strategic alliances, and bridging gaps within the organizational hierarchy (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
Utilize tension to create adaptive change (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
Adamstown Police Department
Adamstown population: 450,000
Adamstown Police Department full-time positions:2,550
Adamstown Police Department full-time officer positions: 2,000
Adamstown Police Department mission: “To create a safer city by reducing crime, ensuring the safety of our citizens, and building trust in partnership with our community.”
Pros & Cons
High-quality relationships reduce employee turnover and result in increased positive performance evaluations, commitment to achieving goals, attention and support given to employees from leaders (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012). Application of Leader-Member Exchange Theory helps lead employees objectively (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
A Plan for Leadership
ORG561: Examination of Modern Leadership
Colorado State University Global Campus
Dr. Dana White
October 25, 2015
Applying Cross-Cultural Leadership
Without leadership, any organization could fail (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Every member of a police organization is a leader and has the ability to be a leader (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Leadership must start at the top of an agency and spread down throughout all levels (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Leaders must manage a progressive organization that addresses current challenges while simultaneously planning for the future (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Complexity Leadership Theory
In organizations, future conditions are largely dependent on unpredictable dynamics (Marion & Uhl-Bien, 2001).
Complex leadership sees leadership as providing linkages to emergent structures (Marion & Uhl-Bien, 2001).
Complexity leadership theory seeks to speed up the process by which interdependent individual efforts turn into collective ventures (Lichtenstein, Uhl-Bien, Marion, Seers, Orton, & Schreiber, 2006).
Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend organizational goals (Ghasabeh, Soosay, & Reaiche, 2015).
Transformational leaders motivate followers by creating a shared, inspiring vision for the future (Ghasabeh, Soosay, & Reaiche, 2015).
Transformational leadership encourages followers to act on the greater good of the organization (Belle, 2014)
Applying Transformational Leadership
Provide intellectual stimulation by guiding followers, but letting them find solutions to problems on their own (Hein, 2013).
The leader needs to adapt their style to accommodate the needs and skills of followers (Hein, 2013).
Articulate vision and strategies to followers with optimism and passion (Hein, 2013).
Lead by example utilizing a strong value base (Hein, 2013).
Persevere with conflict and encourage followers to do the same (Hein, 2013).
Applying Leadership Theories
Reestablish relationships with officers by conducting one-on-interviews to gain information about their perception of the issues at hand, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Leader-Member Exchange Theory)
Ask followers for proposed solutions (Transformational Leadership)
Model desired behaviors to employ leadership from the top down (Transformational Leadership)
Push responsibility downwards to allow time to strategically evaluate processes (Complexity Theory)
Require all leaders to assess cultural competency and all employees to attend diversity training (Cross-cultural Leadership)
Optimistically articulate vision (Transformational Leadership) and take responsibility for leadership in all interactions (Complexity Theory)
Commit to reducing employee turnover by employing new leadership theories (Leader-Member Exchange Theory, Cross-Cultural Leadership, and Transformational Leadership)
Employ new recruiting and hiring strategies to attract qualified candidates (Complexity Theory)
Correct full-time employment figures and resubmit them to the City Council
Utilize tension regarding understaffing to create adaptive change (Complexity Theory)
Persevere and encourage followers to do the same (Transformational Leadership)
Employing four different leadership methods including leader-member exchange theory, complexity theory, cross-cultural leadership, and transformational leadership will help Adamstown Police Department to overcome and find appropriate solutions to the problems they are facing. Three of the four methods are positively correlated with decreased turnover, one of the underlying problems Adamstown Police Department is facing. Optimistically and successfully employing transformational leadership to articulate a vision to the City Council is imperative for Adamstown Police Department to reach their goals, but seeking innovative and creative solutions can also help find new methods to meeting such goals.
PROBLEMS PLAGUING ADAMSTOWN POLICE DEPARTMENT
Struggling to reach goal of staffing 2,000 full-time officers
Nine percent of officers leaving the department annually
Half of these officers are leaving for lateral or lower-paying positions
Budget cuts have fifty vacant positions unable to be filled
Inaccurate figures were initially provided to the City Council
Several beats are going unmanned on each shift
Leadership models and their application will be the main focus of the consultation
Low-quality exchanges are impersonal and based on contractual interactions (Graves & Luciano, 2013).
Applying Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Identify your out group (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
An out-group is composed of employees with whom the leader's relationship is based on defined roles (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Reestablish relationships (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Meet with employees one-on-one to gain information on their goals, job satisfaction, what motivates them, and opportunities for challenges (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Continue to check-in with employees on personal and professional levels (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Offer opportunities for training and development (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Consider mentoring and coaching employees (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Allocate tasks to ensure the right tasks are given to the right employee (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Periodically re-assess employee potential and skills (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Conversely, Leader-Member Exchange Theory operates under the assumption that all employees are equally worthy of trust, success, and advancement, which is not always the case (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995). Leaders must ensure they are not being naive when assigning projects, providing opportunity, and giving attention to employees (Green & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Pros & Cons
Complex systems are stable enough that major changes happen infrequently (Marion & Uhl-Bien, 2001).
Is comprised of aspects of other leadership theories (Uhl-Bien & Marion, 2001).
Participants determining organizational goals through their interactions (Uhl-Bien & Marion, 2001).
May increase ethics and behaviors (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
Leaders may feel that their power is being stripped (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
There is a learning curve for leaders to understand how to utilize tension to create adaptive change (Lichtenstein et. al, 2006).
Applying Complexity Theory
Especially as a result of globalization, leaders must be prepared and well-equipped to effectively manage diversity within an organization (Stahl & Brannen, 2013).
Culturally diverse organizations are able to better connect with stakeholders they are reflective of (Alexander, Havercome, & Mujtaba, 2015).
Displaying cultural-competence protects the organization against legal liability from federal laws (Stahl & Brannen, 2013).
Pros & Cons
Properly managing diversity increases innovation and creativity in an organization (Alexander, Havercome, & Mujtaba, 2015).
Decreased turnover, interpersonal conflicts, and dissatisfaction with the job are all benefits of managing diversity well (Alexander, Havercome, & Mujtaba, 2015).
Diversity and cross-cultural training may cost organizations time and money, but otherwise, there are no real disadvantages to leading from a cross-cultural standpoint (Shahl & Brannen, 2015).
Understand how one's beliefs and cultural knowlege (or lack thereof) affect life and work (Dalton, Bhanugopan, & D'Netto, 2015).
Acquire cultural knowledge and exhibit situationally appropriate communication skills (Dalton, Bhanugopan, & D'Netto, 2015).
Assess the workplace for policies and practices that work against diversity goals and that are unfair (Dalton, Bhanugopan, & D'Netto, 2015).
Practice inclusion and intervene when exculsionary behaviors or practices are in place (Dalton, Bhanugopan, & D'Netto, 2015).
Pros & Cons
Transformational leadership is positively correlated with follower performance and increases organizational commitment (Belle, 2014).
Transformational leadership decreases employee turnover (Cameron, Moro, Leutscher, & Calarco, 2011).
Transformational leaders have the ability to influence followers at all levels (Northouse, 2001).
References to nurturing, motivation, vision, and trust can be vague and not clearly defined (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Transformational leadership can lead to abuse (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Transformational leadership treats leadership as engrained in personality, rather than a learned behavior (Ortmeier & Davis, 2012).
Applying Leadership Theories
Alexander, V., Havercome, C., & Mujtaba, B.G. (2015). Effectively managing employees to get results in a diverse workplace such as American Express.
Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 7
Belle, N. (2014). Leading to make a difference:A field experiment on the performance effects of transformational leadership, perceived social impact, and public service motivation.
Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory, 24
Cameron, K., Mora, C., Leutscher, T., Calarco, M. (2011). Effects of positive practices on organizational effectiveness.
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47
Dalton, L., Bhanugopan, R., & D'Netto, B. (2015). Cultural diversity competencies of managers in the Australian energy industry.
Journal of Developing Areas, 49
Ghasabeh, M.S., Soosay, C., & Reaiche, C. (2015). The emerging role of transformational leadership.
Journal of Developing Areas, 49
Graves, L. & Luciano, M. (2013). Self-determination at work: Understanding the role of the leader-member exchange.
Motivation & Emotion, 37
Green, G.B. & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective.
The Leadership Quarterly, 6
Hein, R. (2013). How to apply transformational leadership at your company. CIO. Retrieved from http://www.cio.com/article/2384791/careers-staffing/how-to-apply-transformational-leadership-at-your-company.html
Lichtenstein, B., Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., Seers, A., Orton, J.D., & Schreiber, C. (2006). Complexity leadership theory: An interactive perspective on leading in complext adaptive systems,
Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 8
Marion, R. & Uhl-Bien, M. (2001). Leadership in complex organizations.
Leadership Quarterly, 12
Northouse, P.G. (2001).
Leadership Theory & Practice
(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Ortmeier, P.J. & Davis, J.J. (2012).
Police Administration: A Leadership Approach.
(1st ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Stahl, G.K. & Brannen, M.Y. (2013). Building cross-cultural leadership competence: An interview with Carlos Ghosn.
Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12
Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era.
Leadership Quarterly, 18
Wilson, J.M. & Weiss, A. (2014). Police staffing allocation and managing workload demand: A critical assessment of existing practices.
Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice, 8