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Semantic Web Technology in Europeana

In this presentation we will discuss some technological and organisational challenges for implementing the semantic web vision in Europeana, focusing on metadata modeling, ingestion, and dissemination.
by

Péter Király

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Semantic Web Technology in Europeana

<edm:TimeSpan
rdf:about="http://semium.org/time/19xx_4_quarter">
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
fr
">4e quart 20e siècle</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
en
">4 quarter of the 20th century</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
ru
">4-я четверть 20-го века</skos:prefLabel>
</edm:TimeSpan>
<edm:TimeSpan
rdf:about="http://semium.org/time/1984">
<skos:prefLabel>1984</skos:prefLabel>
<dcterms:
isPartOf
rdf:resource="http://semium.org/time/19xx_4_quarter" />
</edm:TimeSpan>
Antoine Isaac // Pavel Kats
Király Péter // Yorgos Mamakis
Georgios Markakis // Valentine Charles

Semantic Web Technology
in Europeana

europeana.eu
metadata integration
and sharing
Data ingestion
UIM = Unified Ingestion Manager
Europeana Data
Model (EDM)
API: output formats
JSON - JavaScript Object Notation
exhibitions.europeana.eu
europeana1914-1918.eu
pro.europeana.eu
schema.org
* Normalization
* Enrichments
* Clusterization (in planning phase)
Vocabularies:
VIAF, GeoNames, Gemet, DBpedia
JSONP - JSON with Padding
{
"
apikey
": "xxxx",
"action": "search.json",
"success": true,
"
requestNumber
": 2877,
"itemsCount": 12,
"
totalResults
": 67267,
"items": [
{
"id": "/2022701/6C90845B613D0BAF2E38DA1ED1E6167DE26E4206",
"provider": ["Hispana"],
"europeanaCompleteness": 0,
"language": ["es"],
"rights": ["http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/"],
"title": [
"Curiositez de la nature et de l'art sur la vegetation, ou L'agriculture, et le jardinage dans leur perfection",
"De la culture du jardin potager --|gII, culture du jardin fruitier",
],
"
dcCreator
": ["Le Lorrain de Vallemont, Pierre"],
"completeness": 0,
"europeanaCollectionName": ["2022701_Ag_ES_ELocal_esegen"],
"index": 0,
"type": "TEXT",
"dataProvider": ["Gredos (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain)"],
"
link
": "http://europeana.eu/
api/v2/record
/2022701/....json?wskey=xxxxx",
"
guid
": "http://www.europeana.eu/
portal/record
/2022701/....html?utm_source=api&..."
},
<meta name="
twitter:card
"
content="summary"/>
<meta name="
twitter:url
"
content="http://europeana.eu/....html"/>
<meta name="
twitter:title
"
content="Személy - Kodály Zoltán"/>
<meta name="
twitter:description
"
content="Személy - Kodály Zoltán"/>
<meta name="
twitter:site
"
content="@EuropeanaEU"/>
<meta name="
twitter:image
"
content="http://europeanastatic.eu/..."/>
<meta property="
og:title
"
content="Személy - Kodály Zoltán"/>
<meta property="
og:type
"
content="website"/>
<meta property="
og:image
"
content="http://europeanastatic.eu/...."/>
<meta property="
og:url
"
content="http://europeana.eu/....html"/>
<meta property="
og:description
"
content="Személy - Kodály Zoltán"/>
Twitter card
Open Graph (Facebook)
Google webmaster
RDF triples
<div
about
="http://www.europeana.eu/resolve/record
/2023710/8625058B9A7750FC2B300CD0D059772D009541F9"

vocab
="http://schema.org/"

typeof
="CreativeWork">
<h1 property="
dc:title name
">Személy - Kodály Zoltán</h1>
Description:
<span property="
dc:description description
">
Személy - Kodály Zoltán</span>
Creator:
<span property="
dc:creator
creator
">Várkonyi László</span>
Date:
<span property="
dc:date
">[1950]</span>
Date of creation:
<span property="
dc:created
dateCreated
">1950-01-01</span>
Type:
<span property="
dc:type
">Photo</span>;
<span property="
dc:type
">photograph</span>
Format:
<span property="
dc:format
">image/jpeg</span>
</div>
Cultural
Heritage
Object
TimeSpan
Aggregation
Agent
Concept
Place
metadata object ingested from data providers
identifying agents (persons, institutions)
time dimension
spatial information
subject headings, topics, vocabulary entries
information about aggregations
<edm:Place rdf:about="http://sws.geonames.org/2267057/">
<wgs84:lat>
38.71667
</wgs84:lat>
<wgs84:long>
-9.13333
</wgs84:long>
<skos:prefLabel
xml:lang
="de">lissabon</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fi">lissabon</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">lisbonne</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="it">lisbona</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="bg">
лисабон
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="el">
λισαβώνα
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="ru">
лиссабон
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="pt">lisboa</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
la
">
felicitas julia
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
la
">
felicitas julia olissipo
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
la
">
lisbonum
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
la
">
olisipo
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
la
">
olissipo
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">lisbon</skos:prefLabel>
</edm:Place>
<
ore:Aggregation
rdf:about="http://data.europeana.eu/aggregation/provider/2023706/...">
<edm:aggregatedCHO

rdf:resource
="http://data.europeana.eu/item/2023706/..." />
<edm:dataProvider>EuroPhoto LUSA provider</edm:dataProvider>
<edm:isShownBy

rdf:resource
="http://www.europhoto.eu.com/...?file=LUS6889301.jpg" />
<edm:object

rdf:resource
="http://www.europhoto.eu.com/.../LUS6889301_t.jpg" />
<edm:provider>EuroPhoto</edm:provider>
<edm:rights
rdf:resource
="http://www.europeana.eu/rights/rr-p/" />
</ore:Aggregation>
JSON-LD - JSON for Linked Data
RDF XML
Metadata modelling
Ingestion
Dissemination
UIM
Storage engine
Registry
Orchestrator
Resource engine
Plugins
SugarCRM
REPOX
MINT
Registry of projects, providers, contacts
User interface for the Ingestion Team
OAI-PMH harvester
Metadata mapping (DC/EAD/LIDO/... to EDM etc.)
Project-sensitive mapping
Metadata transformation
commands
Raw data in original format
EDM format
Providers
Raw data via OAI-PMH
commands
WEB services
REST API
AMPQ Broker
Initial data workflow
UIM
Storage engine
Registry
Orchestrator
Resource engine
Plugins
Link caching Plugin
Dereferencing Plugin
Enrichment Plugin
Checking linking integrity
Thumbnail creation
Fetch external vocabularies
Transforming external semantic sources into contextual entities
Integration and enrichment
Annocultor
3rd party semantic enrichment tool
Production database
MongoDB
Apache Solr
Storing EDM objects
Searching
blog.europeana.eu
twitter.com/Europeanaeu
<http://www.europeana.eu/resolve/record/2023710/....> a ns4:CreativeWork;
cc:attributionURL <http://www.europhoto.eu.com/....414.jpg>;
cc:morePermissions <http://www.europhoto.eu.com/....414.jpg>;
og:description "Személy - Kodály Zoltán";
og:image "http://europeanastatic.eu/api/....";
og:site_name "Europeana";
og:title "Személy - Kodály Zoltán | Várkonyi László";
og:type "website";
og:url "http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/2023710/.....html";
dc:creator "Várkonyi László";
dc:date "1950-01-01";
....
EDM schema
schema.org schema
Better results in search engines
Rich snippets in search results
Extract RDF statements directly from HTML source
embedded into HTML body
EDM-Open Graph mapping
embedded into HTML head
dc:title → og:title
embedded into HTML head
dc:title → twitter:title
EDM to Twitter mapping
result: rich snippet in tweets
result: controlled rich snippet in Facebook posts
RDFa Lite syntax
(versus Microdata syntax)
Hierarchies
parent
series (of book)
journal title
collection of items
archival fonds
child #1
Volume 1 (of a book)
Issue 2013/4 (of a journal)
Letters writen in 1923 (in a poet's archive)
child #2
Volume 2
Issue 2013/5
Letters writen in 1924
edm:isPartOf
edm:isPartOf
edm:hasPart
edm:isNextInSequence
SWIB13 // 27 November 2013 // Hamburg
Multiple aggregations
Leonardo da Vinci
Photo Marburg
Louvre
Building block schemas
OAI ORE
Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse & Exchange
for organizing an object’s metadata and digital representation(s)
SKOS
Simple Knowledge Organization System
for conceptual vocabulary representation
CIDOC-CRM
International Council of Museums - Conceptual Reference Model
for event and relationships between objects, inspirations
Dublin Core
for descriptive metadata
RDF
Resource Description Framework
for basic data model, syntax, and linked data
Mona Lisa
one
Europeana
object
Multiple presentations
the painting
the digital representations
edm:hasView
edm:hasView
edm:hasView
edm:hasView
edm:hasView
edm:hasView
Separation of concerns
EDM object
original metadata fields
consolidated values (e.g. rights)
technical information
external vocabulary
entries
Europeana Aggregation
information about aggregations that are the
result of Europeana's own work
<edm:EuropeanaAggregation
rdf:about="http://data.europeana.eu/aggregation/europeana/2023706/...">
<edm:aggregatedCHO

rdf:resource
="http://data.europeana.eu/item/2023706/..." />
<
edm:collectionName
>2023706_Ag_EU_EuroPhoto_LUSA</edm:collectionName>
<edm:country>Portugal</edm:country>
<edm:landingPage

rdf:resource
="http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/2023706/....html" />
<edm:language>
pt
</edm:language>
</edm:EuropeanaAggregation>
isPartOf
language variations
external vocabulary
Europeana object type
binding CHO and aggregation
external vocabulary
language variations
link to broader concept
gemet = GEneral Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus
The project aggregated this CHO
Right status at Europeana
The digital presentation at data provider's side
The thumbnail Europeana makes use of
output
There is no production triple store! (yet?)
Product specific vocabularies (LCSH, RAMEAU, ...)
Europeana Open Culture app
dissemination
channels
{
"@context": {
"ore": "http://www.openarchives.org/ore/terms/", "skos": "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#",
"dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/", "edm": "http://www.europeana.eu/schemas/edm/",
"rdf": "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#", "dcterms": "http://purl.org/dc/terms/",
"foaf": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/", "geo": "http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#"
},
"@graph": [
{
"
@id
": "http://data.europeana.eu/proxy/provider/2023706/7BEB4F84DA122BF950F48D7CAAE82B5B97276B88",
"
@type
": "ore:Proxy",
"dc:creator": "Guilherme Venancio",
"dc:date": "1984-11-03",
"dc:description": "CIDALIO CAETANO",
"dc:format": "image/jpeg",
"dc:identifier": "LUS6889301",
"dc:publisher": "EuroPhoto LUSA provider",
"dc:rights": "EuroPhoto LUSA provider",
"dc:title": "CIDALIO CAETANO",
"dc:type": ["Photo", "photograph"],
"dcterms:created": "1984-11-03",
"dcterms:spatial": "LISBON",
"edm:europeanaProxy": "false",
"edm:type": "IMAGE",
"ore:proxyFor": {
"@id": "http://data.europeana.eu/item/2023706/7BEB4F84DA122BF950F48D7CAAE82B5B97276B88"
},
"ore:proxyIn": {
"@id": "http://data.europeana.eu/aggregation/provider/2023706/7BEB4F84DA122BF950F48D7CAAE82B5B97276B88"
}
}
...
Europeana 4 Android
API console
contextual entities
data.europeana.eu
SPARQL endpoint
RDF data download
pilot project results
# 18th century Europeana objects from France
PREFIX edm: <http://www.europeana.eu/schemas/edm/>
PREFIX ore: <http://www.openarchives.org/ore/terms/>

SELECT DISTINCT ?CHO ?year
WHERE {
?EuropeanaObject edm:year ?year ;
edm:hasMet <http://sws.geonames.org/3017382/> .
?EuropeanaObject ore:proxyFor ?CHO.
FILTER (?year < "1800")
FILTER (?year > "1700")
}
ORDER BY asc (?year)
2.4 million object
N-triplets
RDF/XML format
coordinates
non latin alphabets
}
}
historical values
{
additional contextual information (usually in Linked Data fashion) to existing field values
Link to the CHO
Link to portal
Language of the metadata record
<
ore:Proxy
rdf:about="http://data.europeana.eu/proxy/provider/2023706/...">
<dc:creator>Guilherme Venancio</dc:creator>
<dc:date>1984-11-03</dc:date>
<dc:description>CIDALIO CAETANO</dc:description>
<dc:format>image/jpeg</dc:format>
<dc:identifier>LUS6889301</dc:identifier>
<dc:publisher>EuroPhoto LUSA provider</dc:publisher>
<dc:rights>EuroPhoto LUSA provider</dc:rights>
<dc:title>CIDALIO CAETANO</dc:title>
<
dc:type
>Photo</dc:type>
<
dc:type
>photograph</dc:type>
<dcterms:created>1984-11-03</dcterms:created>
<dcterms:spatial>LISBON</dcterms:spatial>
<edm:europeanaProxy>false</edm:europeanaProxy>
<ore:proxyFor

rdf:resource
="http://data.europeana.eu/item/2023706/..." />
<ore:proxyIn

rdf:resource
="http://data.europeana.eu/aggregation/provider/2023706/..." />
<
edm:type
>IMAGE</edm:type>
</ore:Proxy>
original metadata
Europeana's additions
}
two different types
OAI-ORE's proxy concept. One CHO, multiple proxies
<edm:Agent rdf:about="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Raphael">
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">raffael</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="it">raffaello sanzio</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="no">raffaello santi</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fi">rafael</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="pt">rafael sanzio</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">raphaël (peintre)</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="sv">rafael (konstnär)</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">raphael</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="ru">рафаэль санти</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">rafael (nombre)</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">rafael sanzio</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">rafaël santi</skos:prefLabel>
</edm:Agent>
The concept of aggregation comes from OAI-ORE
dc:creator → dcCreator
Link to object API call
Link to portal
}
API header with non-metadata fields
namespace declarations
id and type of the entity
<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept/3432">
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">forest product</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="lv">meža resursu pārstrādes produkts</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
ru
">
лесопродукция
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
bg
">
горски продукт
</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="
el
">
δασικό προϊόν
</skos:prefLabel>
...
</skos:Concept>
<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept/9348">
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">timber</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="ru">лес (материал)</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="bg">дървен материал</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="el">ξυλεία</skos:prefLabel>
...
<
skos:broader
rdf:resource="http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept/3432" />
</skos:Concept>
Language variations in different alphabets
proxies for descriptions from different sources
”La Joconde”
”Lionardo da Vinci”
facebook
Full transcript