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Nelly Diaz

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of Geography

Religion & Culture

Important Achievements were
suspension bridges
a sewage system

calendar had 365 day solar called Xiuhophualli.It had 18 months of 20 days.
most impressive technological element was the suspension bridges
The Aztecs numbers are represented by long sequences of dots
the numbers 20 (a flag), 400 (a feather), and 8000 (a bag of incense).
They made obsidian blades ,wooden digging stick, Copper axes,Maquahuitl.
used spears and they were extremely sharp, and sometimes over 7 feet long.
The Aztec empire was at its peak when the Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1519.
The decline of the Aztecs civilization
no immunity to infectious diseases
Steel weapons
trained animal

Social Pyramid
The Noble Class
The noble class consisted of ..
A ruler
Lords - landowners and judges.

Nobles controlled the government, army, slaves
Priest watched planets and stars to read the calendar and make predictions. The high priests made offerings to the gods, even sacrificing people.
Farmers, artisans, merchants, and metal workers made up the middle class.
Largest class in Aztec society.
Lived in lived in modest houses made of adobe bricks.
Merchants were especially important.
Through merchants, Aztecs were able to trade goods such as rubber, cotton, feathers, and cocoa.
The Middle Class

Consisted of the poor, slaves, and servants. (farmers and hunters)
Their homes were small and simple, as were their meals.
Slaves were owned by nobles.
However, they could buy their freedom or be set free with their masters’ consent.
Children of slaves were born free. Slavery was a form of punishment; those with debts and prisoners of war were slaves.
The Lower Class
Daily life
The Aztec daily life was simple and
similar to the modern day culture
(husband was in charge for supporting the family by farming or doing craft work while women stayed at home to take care of their children, clean, make food, and weave).
Men that were wealthy had
multiple wives
because they were able to
Aztec beliefs were highly looked upon in their society

Religion was celebrated by...
Human sacrifices
building temples

The city of Tenochtitlan was solemnly built on a religious belief
This belief being that the chief of the Aztecs had a dream from God over where he was to lead the people and build such city.

Polytheistic religion

Scholars have identified more than 200+ of these gods

-Gods and goddesses ranged from ones of the universe, agriculture and fertility

Patron god
Known to be the god that led the Aztecs to the land where Tenochtitlan was built
Some scholars say that he may have been a historical figure: such as a priest

He was born on
Coatepec (
known as snake hill

His mother was
Coatlicue (
she of the serpent skirt
while she was attending a temple on this hill, a ball of feathers fell on the floor at the time she was sweeping and caused for her to become pregnant.

Coatlicue was the mother of 400 stars that consisted of daughters and sons

When they learned she was pregnant, one of her daughters named
led her siblings to kill the mother and when they were arriving, Huitzilopotchli emerged from his mothers womb in full armor and dismembered the leader, and threw her down the hill to then only get ready to kill the rest
Religion & Culture (Continued)
Temples or sanctuaries were built
In honor
in representation
for sacrifices
for worshipping
Aztecs would conquer others, and let people continue the worshipping of their God(s), not forcing their religion onto them
All gods were responsible for the actions of what they represented
Ex. Metztil- The Moon , Tonatiuh- The Sun
Sacrifices and ceremonies were offered to the gods

Kept them (gods) happy

Provided resources for the civilization for doing so

Templo Mayor
Map of Aztecs Empire.

Trade,Products, and jobs
Raw materials, finished products, jewellery, wood and medicine

What types of things did people do for a living in this civilization?
people mostly farmed

What agricultural goods did they produce?
beans, squash, avocados, tobacco, hemp, and corn.

What did the civilization develop to ensure a steady food supply?
a marketplace that they called Tianquiztl

What did the civilization do to promote trade?
Merchants travel far beyond the Aztec city to ruled the markets were called pochteca

What factors (if any) may have contributed to the decline of the civilization?

the fact that they trusted the spaniards and gave them gold because they thought they were gods
The architecture was very advanced
art- form of religious expession
Aztec Calender
Representing symbolic/meningful aspects of their culture/religion

Spanish weren't accepting of other beliefs
-Implemented Christianity
-eliminated Aztec religion
"Aztec Social Structure." Tarlton Law Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/exhibits/aztec/aztec_social.html>.
"Aztec Economy Trade and Currency." The Aztec Economy. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://www.legendsandchronicles.com/ancient-civilizations/the-ancient-aztecs/aztec-economy-trade-and-currency/>.
Political Structure
The Aztec empire was made up of a series of city-states known as altepetl.
Each altepetl was ruled by a supreme leader (tlatoani) and a supreme judge and administrator (cihuacoatl)
How were new Emperors picked?
"Aztec Geography." Aztec Civilization. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://aztecforkids.weebly.com/aztec-geography.html>.
Elected by four nobles that were related top the previous ruler
Usually the next emperors were sons or brothers of the previously deceased.
1375 - The first dominant ruler of the Aztecs, Acamapichtli, comes into power.
1440 - Montezuma I becomes the fifth leader of the Aztecs. His rule will mark the height of the Aztec Empire.
1502 - Montezuma II becomes ruler of the Aztec Empire. He is the ninth of the Aztec kings
1521 - Coalition of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors and was led by Hernan Cortes. Took over Tenochtitlan
Aztec tools
Education was important
Fathers were responsible for educating the boys until they reached the age of 10. Boys were educated in a school connected with a temple.
These schools taught
and provided
military trainin
Girls sometimes attended these schools, as well. Otherwise, they stayed at home and l
earned household skills
important to daily life from their mothers.
Decline of the Empire-

Hernan cortes came with just himself and 600 men and took over Tenochitlan.
They were able to conquer the Aztecs and their city because they had things that the Aztecs didn’t have (armor, metal weapons, domesticated animals, and brought over disease)
Attacked and took over the Aztecs for the 3 G’s(God, Glory, Gold)
Political Resorces-
How it started
Aztec chief had a dream that the Aztecs would build a great nation were the Eagle with a snake in its talons lands on a cactus. This place was the middle of an island in Lake Texcoco.

What you would find in theses cities.
They had architecture that rivaled Europe and temples as big as Egyptian pyramids. They had many temples to worship.
There were 15 million people under Aztec Rule.

"Aztec Empire for Kids: Timeline." Ducksters. Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), Apr. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://www.ducksters.com/history/aztec_empire/timeline_aztec_empire.php>.
Location, Landforms, Natural Resources
1325 they founded the main town of Tenochtitlan in Lake Texcoco in modern day mexico city. where the occupied 80,000 square miles of land.
Mexico valley was located ~7,000 feet above sea level.
Lake Texcoco had freshwater lake systems and swampy lands .
Where they create islands, canals, and drained fields called chinampas.

"Aztec Political Structure." Tarlton Law Library. University of Texas at Austin, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/exhibits/aztec/aztec_politics.html>.
"Historical Events." Aztec Civilization. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://aztec-empire.weebly.com/historical-events.html>.
Factors that lead to decline
They lived on an island so they had no access to hunt animals or to domesticate them. Because they didnt have animals they couldnt build imunities to diseases. the climate also made it hard for farming some seasons. These factors all contributed to the down fall of the Aztecs.
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