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Maged Gamal

on 22 November 2014

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Transcript of limestone

Submitted By :

-Ahmed Gehad
-Ahmed saeed
-Ayman Essa
-Mohamed Hassan
-Maged Gamal

Submitted to :

Prof. Dr.

Mohamed Ebrahim

(1) what is a Sedimentary Rock ?

(2) What is a Reservoir ?

(3) Classification , Types and properties of Limestone.

(4) Porosity of Limestone.

(5) Limestone Permeability.

What are Sedimentary Rocks ?
How Reservoir Rock Was Formed ?

Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
2nd year Petroleum Dept.
3 Conditions
A source Rock rich in hydrocarbon material.
A porous and permeable reservoir rock.
A Cap Rock
" Seal "
#There are Variety of geological Traps : 1)structural types : anticline , fold & fault.
2)stratigraphic types : unconformity & lens.
and there are combination of these types
Now all of us can know :
What is
"The Reservoir" ?
A petroleum reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons
contained in porous or fractured rock formation.
some micro fossils make up the sea floor ooze
The Summary >>>
Sedimentary Rocks are formed by the deposition of layers of minerals over each other and by diagensis they are changed to sedimentary rocks

and these areThe Types :
(1) Clastic :
-Sand stone


(2) Organic :

- Coal

- phosphate

(3) Chemical :
- Salt rock

- Evaporites

- Limestone
Definition :
Folk System

-Describe the rock bsed on grain size and type.
-The rock is named according to the material filling the spaces.
Dunham System

-Describe the rock based on depositional texture
- mictric matrix :
microcristaline calcite mud matrix
- sparite cement :
sparry calcite cement
Folk System
Dunham System
(1) Physical :

(2) Chemical :
" Limestone as a Reservoir Rock "

Porosity of Limestone
Porosity :
is the ratio of pore volume to its total volume P=Vp/Vt
Limestone Permeability
Rate of flow of a liquid through a formation depends on :
- The pressure drop
- viscosity of liquid
- permeability
what is the permeability ?
The ability of rock to allow fluids to flow through the pore channels
Types of permeability
(1) Absolute :
one Fluid in rock
(2) Effective :
more than one fluid
(3) Relative :

ratio between effective permeability to fluid at a given saturation and effective permeability to that fluid at 100% saturation.
A) Sediment controls on Permeability :
1) Packing density

2) Porosity

3) Grain size

Why limestone is Permeable ?
Then ;
Bedding Planes and Joints Make limestone Permeable
Ranges of
Measuring of Permeability
(1) Clastic (2) Carbonate
- Dolomite
- Limestone
Why Porosity is important ?
B) Directional Permeability
Caused by orientation of grain size

It's a Video to show us
this Process :
Full transcript