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Transcript of Africa
ROMINA DEVILLE, KATE LARSON, REBECCA RODRIGUEZ, ALEXIS VILLATE
Period V: 1750-1914
PERIOD iV: 1450-1750
PERIOD VI: 1914-Present
Changes & continuities
the khoi khoi
1487-The Portuguese explorer Bartholomeu Dias sails down the coast to reach southern Angola.
1497 - Vasco da Gama lands on Natal coast.
1590s-Khoi Khoi's trade copper and iron with foreigners
1652- dutch establish port on cape town. first euros to settle in south africa
1659-The First Khoikhoi - Dutch Wars begin.
1660- Peace restored after months of negotiations and end of the first Khoi-Khoi-Dutch war.
1673-attack of the Cochoqua marks the start of 2nd Dutch-Khoi-Khoi War.
1674-Completion of the stone fortification the Castle of the Cape of Good Hope
1676-voc launch 2nd attack on the Chocoqua = Third Dutch-Khoi-Khoi War
1690 (approx)-This period marks the appearance of the trek Boer
1730- early slave market in zanzibar
vasco de gama & the cape of good hope
Changes and Continuities
sketch of the castle of the cape of good hope
khoi khoi dutch wars
slave market in zanzibar
1755-2nd great smallpox epidemic breaks out in cape
1767-armed confrontations between the dutch colonists and the xhosa
1779-1881: first war of dispossession between the xhosa and the dutch
1780 - 1783 War between The Netherlands and England hastens the end of the commercial and political influence of the Dutch East India Company
1781- french station troops at the cape
1790- 2nd war of dispossession
1798-Dutch east india company finally dissolved
1816-1826: Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire
1836-40 Great Trek begins: 6,000 Afrikaners migrate eastward from Cape Colony
1852-the british take control of cape town
1889-1902 Dutch settlers fight the british in boer war
1909 British Parliament enacts the South Africa Act, proposed constitution of Union of South Africa.
Who did what:
dutch east india company
1482- portuguese fleet arrives in congo and establishes commercial relations
1500s-1600s - British, Dutch, Portuguese and French merchants engage in slave trade through Kongo intermediaries
1500-1800 decline of the congo empire
1500 Organized kingdoms arise in Zambia
1568-The rise of the Kuba federation, another highly structured state, in what is today southern Congo
1575- portuguese found luanda in angola
1580-1680 Angola becomes a major Portuguese trading arena for slaves.
1665-congo defeated in war with portuguese
the great trek
Europe began to withdraw from Africa
The struggle for independence truly commenced, since prewar promises were never met
Rounding from 1957 to 1991, Africa was gaining independence from their European rulers
south africa act
the zulu kingdom
1940- Black Africans from French and English colonies are conscripted into the war against Nazi Germany
1948-Apartheid in South Africa commences as the Afrikaner National Party comes to power
1958 -South Africa gains independence from England.
1960-Madagascar gains independence from France.
1961-South Africa becomes a republic & withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations
1964-Malawi and Zambia gain independence from Britain.
1966-Lesotho and Botswana gain independence from Britain.
1975-Mozambique gains independence from Portugal
1980-Rhodesia gains independence from Britain and is renamed Zimbabwe
1988-Namibia gains independence from South Africa
1990-Nelson Mandela (born 1918) is released from prison after twenty-seven years in jail. elected president in 1994
1991-The African National Congress announces the victory of its thirty-year struggle against apartheid
2010-South Africa is the first African country to host the FIFA World Cup
independent countries in southern africa
flags of southern africa
end of apartheid
Period IV: 1450-1750
Period V: 1750-1900s
Period VI: 1900s- Present
Alexis Villate - EAST AFRICA
KATE LARSON - WEST AFRICA
Rebecca Rodriguez -South Africa
Romina Deville -North Africa
-Colonial Rule by the Dutch and English dies down by P.6 (p)
- independence gained in several southern countries of Africa (p)
-increase in population with better crops introduced in p.4 (e)
-old beliefs combined with new religions (r)
-rise and fall of apartheid (s)
-movement for women's suffrage comes w/change to independence (S)
-education becomes more important (segregated during apartheid) (I)
-great diversity in art during apartheid years (A)
Colonial rule from periods 4-5 (P)
wars over land and territory (P)
After colonial rule ends, continual push for economic and political stability (P,E)
poverty and underdevelopment remain as challenges for social and human development (e,S)
ethnic and religious divisions persist from previous periods (r)
islam and christianity remain dominant religions (R)
most women continue to be dominated by male family members (S)
children are indispensable part of lineage in subcontinent (S)
richest collection of rock art (A)
The Sa-did sharifs from 1510-1659
The Alawid/Filali sharifs begin in 1664
Still independent of Ottoman rule
Ottoman turks capture Algeria and there is Ottoman rule from 1555 until 1830
*Alexis contributed to much of the picture-finding
Ottoman rule in parts of eastern Tunisia
The Muradids rule from 1612 to 1702
The Husaynids rule from 1705-1881
Ottoman rule in eastern Libya from 1574 to 1881
The Qaramanlis from 1711 to 1835
Mamluk rule ends in 1517
Ottoman rule from 1517 to 1805
Cairo capital of the Egyptian territory of the Ottoman empire
Turkish governors have a bad relationship with the the Egyptian population and their position is challenged
At the beginning the Ottomans rule what is present-day Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, but the empire then collapses. In the 1700s, the power of the Turkish governors sent from Anatolia is taken from local military leaders. the Alawid/Filali dynasty replaces the Sacdid sharifs in Morocco, and still rules today.
Egypt grew to be one of the strongest Muslim states, especially economically.
Muhammad Ali initiates a series of military, economic, and administrative reforms.
In 1798, Napoleon invades and the Egyptian campaign remains until 1801.
Ottoman rule ends in 1805
When the Suez Canal opens in 1869, Western influence increases.
The British rule Egypt from 1882 to 1922
The entire continent was a territory of potential commercial and colonial expansion
Colonies start to be built in Northern Africa & the scramble for Africa began
British expand heavy influence into Northern Africa, especially Egypt and the Sudan
Alawid/Filali sharifs line, from 1664 to present day
Morocco is the only North African country that wasn't conquered by the Ottomans.
As an independent state, its power is divided between the sultans and the tribal and Sufi leaders.
As European trade increases, Moroccan industries cannot compete and Moroccan trade routes seem to not matter.
Sultan Hasan ibn Muhammad from 1873 to 1894 introduces many internal reforms, which all are unsuccessful because of strong opposition by religious and political elites.
This opens morocco for French colonization between 1899 and 1912.
Morocco preserves its Berber tradition until the French colonization.
Ottoman rule ends in 1830 and in that same year French rule begins
Even though there are many uprisings and revolts, northern Algeria is made part of France in 1879, and its administration is reorganized with a new educational system.
Algerians have limited rights, such as they can only obtain French citizenship if they renounce Islam and have limited mobility or public power.
Tunisia attempts Westernizing reforms like those of Muhammad Ali's in Egypt.
French involvement in Tunisia increases while Tunisia modernizes.
The French occupy Tunisia in 1881, during which the French authorities found the Institut de Carthage: the leading scientific and cultural institution of the colony.
The Qaramanlis rule until 1835, and that same year the Ottomans take rule until 1911
Ottoman rule saw administrative changes and a greater order in the governing of the 3 provinces of Libya
Portugal, France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands began to land along the coastline and exert dominance.
European countries began to compete for trade in the area
France gained control of a minor departure point of the African slave trade.
European missionaries introduced Christianity in the 19th century
1850's: the French began to expand onto Senegalese mainland -- they had abolished slavery, promoted an abolitionist doctrine
The French took over much of the Senegal land (heavy French influences)
1959: Senegal and the French Sudan merge to form the Mali Federation (later, Republic of Mali) which became fully independent in 1960
Leopold Sedar Senghor: Senegal's first president, 1960. Very well-read, educated in France, poet, philosopher. Advocated African socialism.
1981: Power transferred from Senghor to his hand-picked successor, Abdou Diouf.
Abdou Diouf: encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, 1981-2000
1999: Diouf transferred power to the new president, Abdoulaye Wade
Had an alawite state while controlled by the Spanish in the coast from 1904 to 1956, and controlled by the French in the north from 1912 to 1956
Independent from Europe, the Moroccan kingdom was made under the Alawite state which will remain from 1957 until resent day
French is replaced by Arabic in all public schools
indigenous history IS still NOT TAUGHT
fRENCH RULE INSPIRES A secular movement for independence
Under French rule until 1962, in which year the Republic of aLGERIA WAS MADE WHICH STILL EXISTS TODAY
The authoritarian regimes administered economic development
The Modernization of methods in business and education were made
The French rule until 1956, and that same year the Republic of Tunisia is made which still exists today
A popular revolution from 2010 to 2011 instituted democratic reforms and substantial civil liberties.
The Italians colonize Libya from 1911 to 1942
The British and French control Libya from 1942 to 1951
The Libyan-Arab republic is made in 1969 and still exists today
There is the British mandate from 1912 to 1922
Then the mandate goes, but still have the military present from 1922 to 1952
The Republic of Egypt lasts from 1952 to 1958
Then the United Arab Republic from 1958 to 1961
Finally, the Arab Republic of Egypt from 1961 to present day
European colonization led to a heavy influence of them and made old African structures collapse
The slave trade led to more international trade in northern Africa and destroyed its economy
Political structures changes-democracy began to develop as well as republics
Arabic language as well as Berber begin to dominate with Western education
Poverty remains a real and big problem
Maintained a unique tradition and culture despite outside influence
Islam remained the dominant religion over this time period and to present day despite outside religions being introduced and forced
c1796-The Tutsi herders, Banyamulenge (people of the mountains), arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago
1874 -David Stanley, British journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the Congo River basin
1884-1885 start of european colonization in congo
1880s-King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the "Congo Free State" as colony and exploits its resources through slave labor
1862-John speke is the first european that visits buganda
1891- Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
1894-1900-Britain takes control of the area, calling it Uganda
1902-Joseph Conrad's novella, The Heart of Darkness, based on his experience as a steamer captain on the Congo River, is published
1908-belgium colonial rule in congo
1960- congo independence
1962- uganda gains independence
1964-Tanganiyaka and Zanzibar merge to form one nation: Tanzania. Zambia gains independence
1994-Genocide in Rwanda kills 800,000 Tutsis and Hutus. The perpetrators of the genocide flee to Congo, where Mobutu allows them to launch attacks from Congo back into Rwanda.
1996-Uganda and Rwanda invade Congo and support Congolese rebels in war against Mobutu's government.
2000-Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya join to form the East African Community and pledge cooperation
the slave trade in kongo
tustis, hutus, twa
brits in uganda
genocide in Rwanda
belgians in congo
heart of darkness
in recent times, famine and brutal civil wars persist (P,S)
challenges with economic development (E)
fusion of traditional animistic beliefs with new religions (R)
islam is a dominant religion (R)
Patriarchal society, although women are respected (s)
geographical barriers don't allow for much technological advance (I)
sculptures are remarkable in SSA (religious themes) (A)
south/sub-saharan Africa:http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13150044 http://www.friendsofthecongo.org/history-timeline.html
(pics found on prezi search engine, none of these photos are mine, captions will direct you w/ links
south/ subsaharan africa:
http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/2.1/davis.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Africa#History, http://www.mapsofworld.com/africa/regions/northern-africa-map.html, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Northern_Africa, http://www.preceden.com/timelines/54992-african-slave-trade-1450-1750, AP Edition: World Civilizations- The Global Experience
1470 - mombasa becomes a dependant coast
1498 - vasco de gama arrives at city of mombasa
1502-1509 - portuguese try to control swahili ports but get kicked out
1630s - omanis start to settle
1698 omanis have control over entire coastline
1840-1880 - arab/swahili slave trade at its height
1888 - imperial british east africa company is created
1895 - british government founds the east african protectorate (replaces east africa company)
Very poor region. Some of the population needed to sell themselves into slavery in order to make money.
History of controlling trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves.
Easy water access! Explains European landings and why Senegal supported major slave trade ports.
Five important states flourished in the pre-European era.
The Ivory Coast was extremely divided between different kingdoms and regions of peoples
Divided! Remember: not much unity at this time!
Fell under French control to become part of the French Sudan. Later united with Senegal to become the Mali Federation.
These banana fritters are evidence of French influence in Senegalese cuisine! Remember: France & Senegal
Can you see why Mali would be a great place for trans-Saharan trade? Not far from the West coast and just central enough to traverse across land!
1920 - Inland Kenya becomes a British Crown Colony, under the rule of a British governor, the coast is a protectorate, with nominal rule form the Sultan of Zanzibar
1944 - formation of kenyan african union
1942 - members of the Kikuyu, Embu, Meru and Kamba tribes took an oath of unity and secrecy to fight for freedom from British rule
1956 - mau mau rebellion mostly suppressed by british
1964 - Kenya became a republic
1967 - Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania form the East African Community
1977 - east africa community collapses
end of colonial rule in africa brings new independent states (P)
transitions between democratic and authoritarian rule (P)
independence brings availability of subsidies (E)
closely linked with the global superpowers after the scramble (E)
Decline of slave trade (E)
ethnic tensions lead to violence (S)
independence leads to the need for industrial advance (I,E)
naturalistic art becomes more visually abstract (A)
Western Africa was dominated by Europeans as they began to control regions. Independence movements later swept the area and the oppressed regions soon gained their independence.
European interests in Africa changed from slaves to raw materials.
Slavery Hit hard in Period 4 and sill exists today.
Poverty struck many areas as a result of European control, and the same poverty exists in those areas today.
Even though certain regions are not "dependent COlonies" any longer, some are dependent "Banana Republic" whose economies rely on (a) specific crop/s or export in order to make money. This is a direct outcome of long-term European dependency.
1881 - Revolt against the Turco-Egyptian administration.
1899-1955 - Sudan is under joint British-Egyptian rule
1956 - Sudan becomes independent
1972 - Under the Addis Ababa peace agreement between the government and the Anya Nya, the south becomes a self-governing region
1983 - introduction of Sharia Islamic law
1999 - Sudan begins to export oil
1445 - Emperor Constantine I defeats the forces of the Sultan of Adal at the Battle of Gomit
1492 - Portuguese traders make contact with the Emperor of Ethiopia
1529-1543 - Adal-Ethiopian War
1557 - ottoman empire captures massawa; limits links to outside world
1670-1690s - Golden era; religion and developing arts
1700s - Golden Age comes to an end; increased factionalism between religious, political, provincial, and ethnic groups
1769 -Emperor Tekle Haymanot II, aided by his great-grandfather general Ras Makael, defeats the forces of Fasil of Damot at the Battle of Faggeta.
there were so many changes in emperors throughout this period; they just kept killing and succeeding power
early 1860s - British ambassadors are sent to Ethiopia
1862 - Emperor Tewodoros offers to support the British in an alliance to destroy Islam, the offer was rejected by the British government
1855-68 - reconcilidation of ethiopian kingdom under tewdoros iI
1868 - Britain dispatches a military expedition to Ethiopia to resolve the dispute over the imprisoned envoy
1896 - Invasion by Italian forces stopped at the Battle of Adowa
1889-1913 - Rule of ethiopian king menelik ii
1923 - Ethiopia becomes a member of the League of Nations
1931 - Ethiopia adopts a written constitution
1935 - italy invades ethiopia
1948 - majority of british troops depart ethiopia
1974 - Application of Marxist philosophy to government of Ethiopia as the country is declared a socialist state; Military Administration begin a program of reforms known as Ethiopia Tikdem ('Ethiopia First'); Land and property is nationalized and Agriculture and industry is collectivized
1979 - Chairman Mengistu Haile Mariam creates a new commission to establish the country's Marxist-Leninist ideology and reorganize its political parties
1988 - Renewed conflict from the Eritrean and Tigray People's Liberation Fronts
= A New French Colony!
Samouri Toure tries to expand his kingdom into the Ivory coast, but is ultimately captured and exiled.
French plantations rise and cash crops bring in large amounts of profit.
The indigenous peoples rebel when France tries to force them to fight in WWI.
The country's national debt continues to grow. Especially when cocoa prices take a hit.
Gained independence in 1960. Modibo Keita was named president. He established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources.
1968: Following progressive economic decline, the Keita regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traore.
Traore led a military regime as president, attempting to reform the economy, but his efforts were met with political turmoil and a devastating drought.
Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution.
Strict programs imposed to satisfy demands of the International Monetary Fund brought increased hardship upon the country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly lived in growing wealth. (lower class never benefits!)
March Revolution: mass pro-democracy rallies and a nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which became known as les evenements ("the events"), resulted in the clash between military soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traore.
Alpha Oumar Konaré, followed by Amadou Toumani Touré, was elected president. Subsequently, they helped stabilize Mali.
French trading posts spread along the coast.
1842: the land is made under a French protectorate.
After the Franco-Prussian war, France is forced to withdraw much of its control from Cote D'Ivoire. It is open for other countries to explore.
However, France takes control of ports again in 1886.
1889: another French protectorate agreement is reached.
March 10, 1893: the Ivory Coast is made a French colony.
the horn of africa has been home to the somalis since ancient times
Britain passes a law to abolish slavery to take affect in 1807.
British/Asante gamble for control of Ghana continues on.
Due to a poor economy, the Asante ruler asks for Britain to reinforce the slave trade in Ghana.
A peace treaty is signed, but the Asante still refuse to join the British protectorate.
After the 5th Asante War, the Asante finally hand over power to the British, and the land becomes a British protectorate.
The Portuguese arrive, looking to trade slaves for gold.
The Dutch conquer their fort, and conquer a later built British fort as well, strengthening their power in Ghana.
First interactions between the Asante Kingdom and Europeans.
WE OFFER UP OUR BIBLIOGRAPHY
1860s - france aquires foothold on coast
1875 - Egypt occupies towns on Somali coast and parts of the interior
1887 - british proclaim protectorate
1888 - anglo-french agreement defines territories
1889 - italy sets up protectorate in central somalia
Open water access = Easy to take control of. That explains the early constant struggle for power!
1936 - formation of italian east african province
1940 - Italians occupy British Somaliland
1950 - Italian Somaliland becomes a UN trust territory under Italian control
1956 - Italian Somaliland renamed Somalia
1960 - british & italian parts become independent and form united republic of somalia
1970 - Barre declares Somalia a socialist state and nationalises most of the economy
1988 - Peace accord with Ethiopia (bitter from territory issues)
2000s - many starvations and death rates due to natural disasters and droughts
The end of WWII brings about a strong call for independence.
28 February 1948: Kofi Kwame Nkrumah leads a boycott of British and Asian owned businesses. Police open fire at an anti-colonial demonstration in Accra. During the ensuing riot 29 are killed and several hundred injured. Nkrumah confesses to instigating the demonstration and is briefly imprisoned.
1956: first sub-Saharan country to win independence.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=10®ion=afa, http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m19/activity1.php, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/kenya/l/bl-Kenya-Timeline-1.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/kenya/l/bl-Kenya-Timeline-2.htm, http://www.kenyarep-jp.com/kenya/history_e.html, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14095300, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/ethiopia/l/bl-Ethiopia-Timeline-2.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/ethiopia/l/bl-Ethiopia-Timeline-3.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/ethiopia/l/bl-Ethiopia-Timeline-4.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/ethiopia/l/bl-Ethiopia-Timeline-5.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/ethiopia/l/bl-Ethiopia-Timeline-6.htm, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094632, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/uganda/l/bl-Timeline-Uganda-1.htm, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/uganda/l/bl-Timeline-Uganda-2.htm,
1500s - Bunyoro-Kitara breaks up into several smaller states
1550 - Bunyoro Kingdom at its greatest extent
1800s - The Buganda now control a vast swathe of territory from Lake Victoria to the Nile and Kagera river
1840s - Buganda obtains firearms, cloth, and beads from Muslim traders
1859-1870 - buganda vs toro: war
late 1800s - king allows christian missionaries into country; christians being persecuted
1890 - heligoland treaty
1892 - battle of mango
1894 - british protectorate established
1896 - beginning of a railway route from mombassa to uganda
Easy access by water!
The Portuguese arrive first along the coast.
In north-west Nigeria, the Songhai Empire begins to eclipse the Empire of Mali and dominate the region's trade routes (Gold).
Millions of slaves are sold, and ivory is also a main export.
The Soko Caliphate, a large Islamic state, is formed in the North.
1861: the British begin formal colonization in the region, though commercial interests have changed from slaves to natural resources.
The Royal Niger Company is bought out by the British and becomes the British Niger Coast Protectorate.
1914: the last independent state is conquered by Britain.
1921 - colonial legislative council is formed
1931 - Railroad extends all the way from Kampala to Mombassa
1949 - Egypt agrees to a British plan to dam the White Nile in Uganda
1958 - Uganda achieves internal self-government
1967 - became republic; traditional kingdoms abolished
1977 - Amnesty International accuses Idi Amin of the execution of thousands of dissidents in Uganda
1978 - East African Community (EAC) collapses
1989 - Uganda resumes diplomatic relations with Zaire
1995 - Uganda breaks all ties with Sudan
2000 - Ebola outbreak in northern Uganda
2001 - Uganda rekindles the East African Community (EAC)
battle of mango
Violent riots take place around 1853.
30 July 1957: Nigeria granted autonomy by Britain.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa becomes prime minister for the Northern People's Congress (NPC). He is determined that Nigeria will not be dominated by the English-educated south.
A Nigerian oil boom follows, and oil prices continue on to fluctuate.
colonized kingdoms move for independence from europe
European colonization; establishing protectorates
trade along the coast
famine due to drought and lack of food
still a third world country
Yup, once again, easy ocean access for the Portuguese to swoop in!
The Portuguese first arrived in the 15000s.
Malaria prevents significant European colonization until later in time.
Europeans who did make the trip at the time were mainly focus on the salve trade.
Beginning in 1884, Cameroon became part of the Germany colony Kamerun.
In 1919, the colony was split between Britain and France.
Large Muslim and Christian populations arose.
Rebellions for independence arose.
In 1960, Cameroon became independent.
Ahmadou Ahidjo, a French-educated Fulani, was chosen as President in 1961.
Ahidjo relied on a pervasive internal security apparatus
He outlawed all political parties but his own in 1966
change from traditional kingdoms to republics
began to establish their own governments
countries became more linked because of railroads